İngilizce Ögrenme Kılavuzu
İngilizce Ögrenme Kılavuzu

İngilizce Ögrenme Kılavuzu

Adverbs

  1. Adjective + ly = ADVERB
  2. This is a slow traain. That old woman is walking slowly.
  3. Michael had a quick bath and he quickly went downstairs to have breakfast.
  4. She is sad because she has lost her dog. That’s why she looks at us sadly.
  5. She’s happy because she’s going to get married. She will live happily now.
  6. This is a real diamond. Do you really believe it?
  7. He is a careful driver. He drives very carefully.
  8. This exercise is easy to do; I’ve done it easily.
  9. This is a bad boy; he always behaves badly.

slow – slowly                     real – really

quick – quickly                   careful – carefully

sad – sadly                         easy – easily

happy – happily                 bad * badly.

good sıfatının zarfı = well

  1. FREQUENCY ADVERBS

Always – never – ever – often – seldom – sometimes – rarely – frequently.

Süreklilik zarfları (frequency adverbs), to be fiili hariç, her zaman ana fiilden önce kullanılırlar. To be fiilinin ise sonrasında kullanılırlar. Yardımcı fiille kurulan zamanlarda, süreklilik zarfları, yardımcı fiilden sonra ve ana fiilden önce gelirler.

He always gets up early and never goes to school late.

She rarely eats soup but she often eats sweets.

He frequently goes to football matches bui he seldom goes to

Sne is aiways at nGrr.c in

He’s rarely there on Sundays; he’s always in the country.

Does he ever go to Cambridge9

I have frequently visited London, but I have seldom visited Edinburgh.


Wishes – Greetings

1,.Good mommy.

9 I wssh you a naoov New Year

r IIQ < t/ u I 11 v ^ i» i »v ■ * ij v j j   w* • ■ . .    j    v

  1. Happy birthday. Many happy returns of the day.
  2. Congratulations. Congratulations on your success. Congratulations on your victory.
  3. Good luck. I wish you the best of luck.
  4. Thank you. Thanks. Thank you so much. Thank you ever so much.
  5. Welcome. Welcome home. Welcome to our city.
  6. You’re very kind. It’s kind of you. It’s most kind of you.

It’s awfully kind of you.

10. Please don’t go into all that trouble. I don’t want to give you any trouble.

Good morning;

happy New Year…….. Good morning; thank you and

the same to you.

I’m going to Brighton for the

week-end………….. Have a nice time!

We are going to a party Enjoy yourselves!

I’m leaving for Paris by train…. Have a nice journey!

I’m flying to New York Have a nice flight!

I’m sailing to Dover.. Have a nice voyage!

I’m 10 years old to-day Happy birthday. Many happy

returns of the day.

I’m getting married… Congratulations.

I’ve passed my examinations…. Congratulations on your

success.

We’ve beaten Chelsea

5 to nothing………. Congratulations on your

victory.


We are going to climb

Mt. Everest………… Good luck. I wish you the best

of luck.

Here’s a cigarette….. Thanks.

You are very pretty     Thank you. You are very kind.

I’ll help you with your suitcase     Thank you so much. It’s very

kind of you.

It’s late. I’ll drive you home   Thank you ever so much. It’s

most kind of you.

I’m back home again     Welcome home, my child.

This is a beautiful city Thank you; welcome to our

city.

I’ll carry your suitcases to the

train……………… Thank you so much. It’s awfully

kind of you, but please don’t go into all that trouble.

Could I drive you tothe station?… Thank you: I don’t want to give

you any trouble; please let me take a taxi.

A wish to a gossip who is leaving

—  Good riddance!

WORDS

diamond, elmas frequently, sık sık rarely, seyrek, arada bir success, başarı IDIOMS

have a nice time, iyi eğlenceler enjoy yourself, iyi eğlenceler have a nice journey, iyi yolculuklar it’s very kind of you, çok alicenapsınız

it’s awfully kind of you, çok naziksiniz beni mahcup ediyorsunuz anlamında kullanılır.

go to a lot of trouble, zahmete girmeyin good riddance, gidişin olsun gelişin olmasın


The pronoun one, ones

Have you got a pencil?

Have you got your pencil?

Has Michael got a fishing-rod? Has Michael got his fishing- rod?

Which is your book the red one or the blue one?

Here are some books. Which ones are yours?

Do you like the hats in this window?

Here are two pens. Which one do you want?

Which do you want, this one or that one?

Which are my books?

Does she read magazines?

Which hat do you like?

Those apples are very good.

These are all my dresses.

Yes, I’ve got one.

Yes, I’ve got it.

Yes, he’s got one.

Yes, he’s got it.

The blue one is.

These ones are mine; those are Phil’s.

1 don’t like all of them. I like the one with the cherries on top.

I’ll take this one.

I want that one.

The ones on the table.

Yes, she reads a lot but she buys cheap ones.

The green one. I’ll buy the green one.

Yes, they are, but the ones I bought yesterday were better. Where are the ones you bought in Paris?


Revision 1.  How Mrs. Heath spends the day at home

At 8.10 every morning Mrs. Heath kisses Mr. Heath good-bye. As the children leave earlier she is alone at home and this is the usual way she spends her time.


 

First she goes to the kitchen to wash up and then she dresses quickly and goes to the market for the day’s shopping. She calls at the baker’s, grocer’s, greengrocer’s and butcher’s. Sometimes she also calls at the fishmonger’s, for fresh fish. After she has shopped she goes back home. If it is not too late she calls in at some friend’s for a quick cup of tea and a chat. She is never back home later than 10 o’clock.

After she has put the meat and the vegetables in the fridge and has put everything else in its place, she puts on her apron and goes upstairs to do the bedrooms. She uses a vacuum-cleaner for the floors and she makes the beds, It usually takes her about one hoi ir tn dn th*3 three bertrooms and ciean tftfi batnroom. Now at ss about eleven o’clock and, she runs downstairs to prepare the day’s mealV When everything is ready in the pot she switcheson the gas-stove and the cooking begins. She can nowgive herself a little rest. So she turns on the radio to enjoy some music and then she rings up some friend for another quick chat about the weather or cooking problems.


When the chat on the phone is over she remembers that she must clean the living-room and sweep the veranda. Now It is already 12 o’clock. She goes back to the kitchen to see if the meal Is ready and then runs out to answer the door as the postman has brought her some letters. Now she has another problem. Two of the letters are for her and she must answer them. She also wants to read the newspaper but she has to look after the meal in the pot, prune the garden, dust the furniture, change the curtains, and lay the table for lunch before the children come back from school.

She finally manages to do everything except write the letters and read the newspaper. She is a proud housewife but a very tired one, although this is not one of her busiest days at home.


 

2. How Fluffy ran into trouble

One day, while Mrs. Heath was cooking in the kitchen, Fluffy decided to go out and have a walk alone. He only wanted to walk around the neighbourhood and see some of his friends. When Mrs. Heath was busy he often found the opportunity to run away but he always came back after a short while. But this time Fluffy came back very late.

This is what happened. He walked up to the park and stop­ped, He thought a little and said to himself: “I’ve never visited the park alone. Perhaps I can have a quick walk and see some dogs there.” So he went across the street and walked into the park. There were plenty of people and children in it. But he saw few dogs.The ones he saw were all with their masters.He couldn’t stop them and have a friendly chat. He continued walking along the park lanes for some time and as he reached the little pond of the park he met a dog without its master.lt was walking alone,like himself. The other dog saw Fluffy too. Perhaps he was looking for a new friend also. Fluffy decided to speak first and here is what they said to each other:                 , e

DIALOGUE

Good morning. Are you walking alone?

Good morning. Yes, I am, and, as I see, so are you. How did you get away?

My mistress was cooking and I got away when she was not looking.

That’s funny, because that’s how I got away too.

Will you walk with me? We can walk all the way to the river.

Yes, I will. I always like to see the river. I haven’t seen it for some time now.

Then let’s go.

O.K., let’s go. Have you got a cat at home?

Yes, we’ve got a big cat. We call him Blackie. Have you got a cat?

Oh, yes. He’s a big cat too. He’s Tom. We’re very good friends.

So am I with Blackie. What’s that over there?

Oh, that’s a bull-dog. He looks angry, doesn’t he? Yes, he does, i’m afraid he’s looking for trouble. What shall we do then?

Let’s go on and pretend that we haven’t seen him. Yes, but he’s coming this way and he’s showing his teeth.

Well then let’s show our teeth too. If he wants a fight he’ll have a fight.

Yes, but he’s a strong dog; he’s stronger than us. You forget that we are two dogs and he’s one dog. Two is always more than one.

Gooq morning! I’m looking for friends i’ve come out to walk and i fees lonely.

You are welcome to walk with us. Come along; we’re going to the river.

How funny. We thought you were angry with us and we were ready to fight!

Oh, we bull-dogs look angry but we have a heart of gold.


two hours later.

Fluffy comes back home. He is wet because he fell into the river and Mrs, Heath is very angry.

mrs heath Now I II show you, naughty dog. Go straight to the bathroom! I aom care if you get soap in your eyes. TKat, atfoocr win oesojmc: uurnSl’irncnttotcach you

I.-.- ;           fr!*! into

fluffy: Bow-wow; Bow-wow-wow-wow-w-w-w

Fluffy will not go walking to the river for a long long time now. He cannot forget the bath and the soap in his eyes and he did not like to hear Tom laughing at him miaow-miaow-miaow-w-w. In cat language he was saying ‘ How funny you look! Why didn’t you stay home and have a nice sleep (ike me?

KATHY I went to the airport yesterday.
MARY And did you see many planes?
KATHY Oh, lots of them;

they were landing and coming in all the time.

MARY Did you see any jumbo jets?
KATHY Yes, I saw a few. They fly across the ocean.
PHIL Will you go and see the tennis games at Wimbledon this year?
GEORGE No, I’m afraid I shan’t.

I shan’t be in England next July.

PHIL Oh. I know; you’ll go to France, won’t you?
GEORGE That’s right; I II have a holiday in Paris.
PAPPY You II come to the party, won’t you?
MICHAEL No, thank you. I’m afraid I shan’t.
PADDY Why not9

It s going to be a nice party.

MICH At L I know.

I didn’t say it’s not going to be a nice party. I only said that I won’t come I don’t want to go to parties

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


How was it in Scotland? Did you enjoy yourself? Oh, very much.

We visited lots of places

like Edinburgh, Glasgow, the Clyde.

Which is more beautiful Glasgow, or Edinburgh?

Oh, Edinburgh is much more beautiful.


 

 


WORDS – IDIOMS


 


greengrocer, manav

butcher, kasap

fishmonger, balıkçı (dükkancı)

vacuum cleaner, elektrikli süpürge

pot, kap, derin tabak

to sweep, süpürmek

veranda, balkon

postman, postacı

to dust, tozunu almak

furniture, mobilya

finally, sonuç olarak housewife, ev kadını opportunity, fırsat, plenty of, bir sürü angry, kızgın

to pretend, … gibi yapmak straight, doğru soap, sabun laugh, gülmek


 


to answer the door, kapı çalınınca açmak to answer the bell, zil çalınca kapıyı açmak to answer the phone, telefona bakmak a short while, a little while kısa bir zaman to look for trouble, bela aramak to have a heart of gold, altın gibi kalbi olmak


 


PRINCIPAL PARTS – IRREGULAR VERBS leave – left – left

show – showed – shown

«ati . foil . fallpn


 


-…nnrt «uiant –

dünya tenis şampiyonası uuietua yap»….


Three different stories

1. A cat that talks

A woman, whose name was Mrs. Andrews, had a young cat which was one year old. One evening the cat went outside when heavy snow began to fall. Mrs. Andrews looked everywhere and shouted its name but she did not find it so she telephoned the police and said, “I’ve lost a small black cat. Has anybody foOnd one?”

“No, madam,” said the policeman at the other end of the line. “But cats are really very strong animals. They sometimes live in the snow for days and, when somebody finds them, they are all right.”

Mrs. Andrews felt happier when she heard this. “And”, she said, “our cat is very clever. She almost talks.”

The policeman was busy and very tired. “Well then”, he said, why * don’t you put your telephone down? Perhaps she is trying to telephone you now”.

  1. Funny things about painting

An artist went to a beautiful part of the country for a holiday. He stayed with a farmer and everyday he went out with his paints and brushes and painted all day.

In the evening he went back to the farm and had a good dinner before he slept.


At the end of his holiday he wanted to pay the farmer but the farmer said, “No, I do not want money. In a week I shall spend it, but your painting will still be here, if you give me one.”

The artist was very happy because the farmer seemed to like hjs paintings and thanked him for saying such good things about his paintings.

The farmer smiled and answered, “It’s not that. I have a son in London. He wants to become an artist. When he comes here next month, I will show him your picture, and then he will not want to be an artist any more”.

  1. The Discovery of America

On September 6th the little fleet sailed out into the great Atlantic Ocean. At first the weather was good and the sailing-ships sailed west. Above them the sky was blue and the sun shone brightly; below them the quiet waters of the ocean sparkled in the sunshine. They sailed like that for some days, but they could see no land. Then, one day, the sailors remembered that they were already too far from Spain; they were afraid that they could not go back to their country, and they did not even know if there was land where they were sailing. So they went to the leader of the fleet and told him all about their fears. They also told him they wanted to sail back to Spain.

Their leader talked with them first but they did not believe him. Then he ordered them and they did not obey. Finally he threatened to punish them and so the fleet continued its voyage west. On they sailed, day after day, sometimes in bad weather, with nothing but the sky above them and the vast sea below and they saw no land. Even their leader was worrying now. But one day, one great day, they saw land ahead. Sailors and captains and the leader of the fleet were happy at last.

The ieader was Christopher Columbus and that is how he discovered America.

snow, kar              discovery, kt?şrî

clever, zeki, uyanık    fleet, donanma

madam, bayan          spark’s, parıldamak Tarnıeı, vilV’ *nnr?ii


IIMPIDA! vaHiA – inn


 


shine – shone – shone

A conversation about cats


 


Do cats talk? Does anyone know if cats talk? Animals don’t talk. How can cats talk?

I’ve read that they do not talk but they can have a kind of conversation.

Will you explain how they can have a con­versation?

I’ll try. Well cats shake their ears, don’t they? Yes they do.

They look at you and often wink, don’t they? Yes, I’ve seen cats wink like that.

You have noticed that they often wag their tail quickly while they are sitting, haven’t you? That’s right, and sometimes they even yawn. Yes they yawn, too. Well, all those things are signals for cats and they mean something. Have you watched a number of cats fitting in a yard on some afternoon?

One cat shakes its ears, the other wags its tail the next cat yawns and another cat winks; they are having a conversation. In cat language perhaps the shaking of ears means “I’ve had a good lunch”, a tail that wags could mean “I’ve got a headache” or a yawn could mean “nonsense”.

How do you know all that?

Well, I love cats and I often sit in my yard and watch them. I’ve studied their habits for a long time and I thought they had a conversation when they behaved like that. I was very surprised the other day when I read that a German naturalist discovered the same thing.


»—- ►

He proved that cats really have a conversation. miss staley: That’s fantastic! Congratulations on your discovery.


 

 


A conversation about great men and great women

Let’s talk about the great men and women in British history.

Let’s see who you admire most.

I admire Lord Nelson. He fought the sea-battle of Trafalgar and he saved his country from a dangerous enemy.

Yes, I think you’ve made a good choice. Lord Nelson was a great man indeed.

My favourite is Bobby Charlton.

Who’s Bobby Charlton?

The great football player. Didn’t you know? No, thanks for making me wiser.

Queen Victoria is the greatest.

Some people say that she was only the Queen of a great country. fourth student: That’s right. That’s why my choice is Queen Elizabeth. She was the great Queen of a small country and she really made it great.

I agree with you. I think Queen Elizabeth was one of the greatest Queens in world history.

I believe Shakespeare is the greatest man in British history.

He’s certainly the greatest dramatist in the world and probably the second greatest poet. Who’s a greater poet than Shakespeare?

« Homer the Greek, is.

floiü

vA/t n

it is almost npossible to say vho is the greaTesr. Atrn:tTe5e people you admire were certainly very great, although I do not think that a footballer is a great man, even if he is very good.

Miss Staley and her students have


 


} think Sir Francis Drake is the greatest; he sailed round Cape Horn, didn’t he?

Yes, Drake was a great man. He was not only an explorer; he was a great admiral and a great patriot too.

Magellan was the greatest of them all; he discovered the straits of Magellan, didn’t he? But he wasn’t British, was he?

How about Stanley and Livingstone. They explored the jungles of Africa and they discovered Victoria Falls, didn’t they?

They were great too, but were they the grea­test?

I know who the greatest is!

Who is he?

He’s Hillary, the first man to climb Mt. Everest. He’s great too. Isn’t there any other great British explorer?

Oh yes, yes! It’s Captain Scott, the man who went to the South Pole.

That’s right. Captain Scott was a great explorer but he was not the first man to reach the South Pole; Captain Amundsen reached the Pole a few days before our unlucky Captain Scott did. But Scott is really great, perhaps greater than Amundsen because he had a tragic end. He and his companions died in a tent on their way back. A bad storm stopped them and they died because they had no fuel and they froze. They have found his diary, haven’t they?

Yes and part of it is in the British Museum. Well, children, all of these men were great. It’s difficult to say who the greatest of them really was. But we can say that Captain Scott had the most tragic end.


WORDS


 


 

to wink, gözlerini kırpıştırmak

to notice, farkına varmak

to wag, kuyruk sallamak (köpek)

to wave its tail, kuyruk sallamak

to yawn, esnemek

signal, sinyal

headache, baş ağrısı

nonsense, saçmalık

habit, alışkanlık

surprise, sürpriz

naturalist, doğalcı, natüralist

enemy, düşman

choice, seçim, tercih

player, oyuncu

World War, Dünya Savaşı

to explore, araştırma yapmak,

explorer, araştırmacr «

admiral, amiral

strait, sığ (deniz)

falls, çağlayan, şelale

the South Pole, Güney Kutbu

companion, yol arkadaşı

to die, ölmek

tragic, trajik

tent, çadır

fuel, yakıt

to freeze, donmak

diary, günlük


 


IDIOMS

there is no end (to) sonu yok, uçsuz bucaksız

PRINCIPAL PARTS – IRREGULAR VERBS shake – shook – shaken freeze – froze – frozen win – won – won


 


QUEEN ELIZABETH SHAKESPEARE SIR FRANCIS DRAKE WINSTON CHURCHILL


 


 

I     v\

»     vv


 

CADTAIN SCOTT



 

You have been swimming. He has been sitting.

She has been cooking.

It has been sleeping.

1

You

have   playing

swimming

Have 1 Have you . playing?

\ swimming?

He     sitting Has he I sitting?
She

It

has been cooking

sleeping

Has she Has it ( . cooking? ) been . . „ ( sleeping?
We     studying Have we \ studying?
You have   walking Have you I walking?
They     reading Have they / reading? eating? working?
AFFIRMATIVE


INTERROGATIVE


NEGATIVE


 


 


I have not (I haven’t)

You have not (You haven’t) He has not (He hasn’t)

She has not (She hasn’t)

It has not (It hasn’t)

We have not (We haven’t) You have not (You haven’t) They have not (They haven’t)


—  When did you start to learn French?

—  I started two years ago.

—  So you started to learn French in 1973.

—  That’s right. I’ve been learning French for two years.

I’ve been learning French since 1973.

—  Where does Mr. Brown live?

—  He lives in London.

—  Didn’t he live in Leeds before?

—  Yes, he did. He lived in Leeds from 1950 to 1965.

—  I see. He lived in Leeds for 15 years.

So he came to London in 1965.

—  That’s right. He’s been living in London since 1965.

He’s been living in London for 10 years.

—  Is Miss Staley your teacher?

—  Yes, she is.

—  Was she your teacher last year?

—  No, she wasn’t. She started teaching us last September.

—  How long has she been teaching you?

—  Well she’s been teaching us since last September.

She’s been teaching us for 8 months now.

—  When did you live in New York?

—  I lived there from 1946 to 1953.

—  And did you come to London in 1953?

—  Yes, I’ve been living in London for twenty-two years.

—  What’s the time now?

—  It’s eleven thirty.

—  How lone? n5s M?sg Stalev tparhjng us geography?

MHSil l 11-it; liuwiUi Owiiiv jwt

I’ve been waiting Tor an uour.



 

—  Why don’t you answer the phone?

I’ve been ringing for two minutes now!

—   I’m sorry but I was in the kitchen and couldn’t hear it.

\A.ih-at hm/o you been doing?

cooking aTilhellme, darling.

—   I didn’t see you this morning Michael.

—   I wasn’t at home.

I went to the hills with Kathy.

—   What have you been doing on the hills?

—   We’ve been chasing butterflies and we’re just going back now.

—  I’ve been ringing Mrs. Smith since noon and she’s not at home.

—   Oh, she went shopping to London.

Didn’t you know?

—  No, l didn’t.

But what is she going to buy?

It’s already five o’clock.

—   Well, she went to London at 10

so she’s been shopping for 5 to 6 hours at least.

—  What are you doing there?

—   I’m trying to cut down the tree, but I’m too tired to continue.

—   Has it been so tiring?

—   Well,look how thick it is.

I’ve been sawing

and sawing for more than an hour and I haven’t cut it down yet.

paddvs mother: Aren’t you going to study ? You’re a very lazy boy. paddy                                       But I’ve just finished studying. I’ve been studying

since 4 o’clock. Didn’t you know? paddy’s mother It’s only 5 o’clock now. You’ve oniy studied for an hour. We don’t work for an hour and play for the rest of the day, you know.


paddy:                           Yes, but don’t forget I studied for two hours one

day last week.

paddvs mother: That’s right. You studied for two hours last week, you watched T.V. for twenty hours, you threw stones for another twenty hours and you had f twenty one meals.

paddy:                           Well, I’ve been studying one hour every day this

week, haven’t I? paddy’s mother: That’s right. You’ll get one meal a day for the rest of the week! That will teach you something.

angry husband: Aren’t you late? I’ve been waiting here in the rain for 40 long minutes. Don’t tell me you’ve missed the bus again or one of your cock and bull stories.

Why are you shouting at me? Don’t forget that I’ve been doing much more than you. I’ve been dressing, making up and then I’ve been running out in the street to take a taxi. All that takes time, doesn’t it? You’ve only been waiting, haven’t you? You can never understand your poor wife! Well I didn’t ask you to come. You wanted to go shopping, didn’t you?

Why couldn’t you come on time then?

All right; you’ve been waiting for 40 minutes! But what’s 40 minutes when your wife is going to buy a few hats and be happy?

Oh, nothing, nothing… except that she’s not going to pay for the hats!


 

 


WORDS – IDIOMS

to start, başlamak                       a cock and bull story, uyduruk öykü

ringing, zil çalmak     to cut down, ağaç kesmek

darling, sevgili         to saw, testereyle kesmek

butterflies, kelebekler                 to make up, süslenmek


Prepositions

—  Where is the vase?

—  Where is Martha?

—  Where is George going?

—  Where are the students?

—                     I— T*/i?

vvnssic sit? my S What time is breakfast?

When is the lesson?_

When will you see him? When did the moon rise? What time is the party? When is Mary’s birthday? When is your holiday?

It’s on the table.

She’s in the room.

He’s going to the cinema.

They are at school.

He’s with George.

They are under the bed.

It’s at 7.30 a.m.

It’s in the morning.

I’ll see him at noon.

It rose at midnight.

It’s about 7 p.m.

It’s on Saturday.

It’s from the 10th to the 20th of July.


 

 


  1. The preposition “at”

He came home at 10 o’clock.

She lives at Granford.

John is at school now.

Mrs. Smith is at the hospital to see her brother who is ill. I shan’t be at home in the afternoon.

He threw a book at me.

She bought 4 pencils at 10 pence each.

He was waiting at the corner.

She was at the dentist’s yesterday noon.

The soldiers stood at ease.

  1. The preposition “in”

He finished the letter in ten minutes. She is at school in the morning. They were in London last summer. They will go to Paris in November. He has a gun in his hand.

They visited Rome in 1973.

Your book is not in this room.

They live in Turkey.

He is going in a shop now.

Zeinab is the girl dressed in a blue skirt.

  1. The preposition “on”                                                                      *

There’s a cat on the roof.

She was wearing a gold ring on her middle finger. George is on his motorcycle.

Is Phil on the boat?

The poor boy had no shoes on his feet.

I went to the theatre on Sunday.

Is Bobby Charlton on the team?

That picture on the wall is beautiful.

He lives on the other side of the island.

If you look north, west is on your left and east is on your right.

His house is on fire.

I wished her many happy returns on her birthday.

The train arrived on time.

  1. The preposition “to”

We went to New York by boat.

The lake is to the north of this road.

He worked from two to seven o’clock.

It’s a quarter to ten.

The score was 3 to 1.

He came face to face with the thief.

To everybody’s surprise he danced in the middle of the market.

V\/p rirnvp ia inp Qpa and bacK aoaio.

The milkman nas brought the milk: give it to me.

  1. 5.  The preposition “with”

He could not write with that pen.

He bought an old chair with a broken leg.


The English fought with the French against the Germans.

Why is he quarrelling with his sister?

My teacher is very good with me.

He laughed with joy.

With all his faults he is a good man.

He gets up with the sun every morning.

Away with you!

  1. The preposition “about”

She talked about her family.

It’s about two o’clock now.

We walked about the city to see the sights.

I lost it somewhere about here.

  1. Prepositions with adjectives.

Good at swimming.

Lucky at cards.

Satisfied with progress.

Successful in passing an examination.

Sorry for (a person)

Sorry about (something)

Happy about (something)

Angry with (someone)

Angry at (something)

Examples:

George is very good at swimming; he’s not so good at mathematics.

He played cards and he won a lot of money; he’s always fucky at cards.

His parents are not very satisfied with his progress. He doesn’t study much.

This time he was successful in passing the examination.

He’s very ill; I feel very sorry for him.

She didn’t go to the party and everybody felt sorry about it. Zeinab and Ali are getting married; I’m very happy about it.

He isn’t coming to dinner with us because he’s angry with me. They were angry at the noise from the radio.


  1. Idioms with prepositions

He came here on foot; she came on horseback; his sister came by bus; his mother came by train.

The book isn’t mine; it’s on loan.

He never buys on credit; he does not like to be in debt. She arrived at the right time. The lesson started at 7 and she came at 6.50.

Mr. Smith is not at his office; he is on leave.

She can’t be 35 years old; she’s 30 at most.

She’s in hospital with a broken arm.

They were 75 men in ail.

He is in love with an Irish girl; he fell in love with her last year. She is in trouble; she was driving too fast and the police caught her.

The poor girl is in tears because she has lost her way.

WORDS – IDIOMS

hospital, hastane              ring, halka (yüzük)

to throw at, fırlatmak                                   motorcycle, motosiklet

pence, pens (bir bozuk para birimi) to be on fire, yanmak

fault, hata, yanılgı on horseback, at sırtında


 

on cfeuit, RteGnî in debt, borçlanma

at the right time, zamanında, aerektığı arıda

\o fall in love, aşka Jü^mek to be in love, aşık (durumda) olmak in trouble, baş: belada in tears, gözyaşları içinde

PRINCIPAL PARTS – IRREGULAR VERBS throw – threw – thrown

The verb may

—  Do you think it’s going to rain to-morrow?

—  I don’t know; it may rain and it may not rain.

—  Will you go to the cinema or will you go to the theatre next Saturday?

—  I don’t know, I may go to the cinema and I may go to the theatre.

—  When are you going to visit Rome, this year or next year?

—   I don’t know; I may visit it th is year and I may visit it next year.

—  Is he going to pass his examination in English?

—  Well, he hasn’t studied much; he may pass it and he may not pass it.

—  Is Mary going to come to my birthday party? Will she have time?

—  I know she hasn’t time; she may come or she may not come to your party.

—  Those dogs look angry; do you think they will have a fight?

—  They are angry indeed; they may have a fight or they may not.

—  May I borrow your pencil, please?

—  Yes, you may but you may not keep it.

—  May I go out and play in the garden?

—  No, you may not; you’ve played enough to-day.

—  May I open the window, please? It’s hot in here.

—Yes, you may but you may not smoke.

—  May we play chase-me in the classroom? It’s raining outside.

—  No, you may not play chase-me; but you may play marbles.

May + 4- verb = may + infinıtive

may fiili de can ve must gibi eksikli (defective) fiildir. Tıpkı onlar gibi fiilin yalın hali ile to durum eki konmadan kullanılır.


The verb to need

—   I want to smoke a cigarette and I have no matches. \ need a box of matches.

—   His shoes are very old; he needs new ones.     f

—  She’s got a high fever; she needs a doctor.

—   I needed a taxi yesterday evening and I couldn’t find one, so I got wet in the rain.

—  He needed the holiday in Switzerland. His health was not very good.

—  Here’s a pen. Didn’t you need one?

—  Didn’t she need a passport when she went to France?

—  No, we don’t need a passport when we go to France.

—  Don’t I need a bath? I’m dirty.

—   I’m afraid you need one.

—  She doesn’t need a hairdresser; she’s a hairdresser herself.

—  You will need an umbrella when you go to England. It’s very rainy there.

—  Will you need any books for your journey?

—  I shan’t need a map to find my way in Paris; I’ve been there

Thorp was once a bov called Dick Whittington who lived in the country a long way from London. People toici him that the streets of London were paved with gold so he decided to go to London to make his fortune. He took his cat and they walked all the way to London but when they got there they had a lot of difficulties. Day after day they searched for work but they could not find any. In the end they decided to go back home.

As they were walking up Highgate hill they heard the bells ringing in the city churches. The bells seemed to say “Turn again Whittington, Lord Mayor of London”. This gave them courage so they went back down the hill to the River Thames. Dick found work on a ship and sailed to a distant country where there was a plague of rats. His faithful cat ate ail the rats and the king gave Dick a rich reward. He became a great merchant in the City of London and later became Lord Mayor.

Dick speaks to his friends in the village.

Welcome back to the village friends!

Where have you been?

We’ve been to London to make our fortunes.

It’s a beautiful city and everyone there is very rich. Are they really? Will I get rich if I go there?

Oh yes! The streets of London are paved with gold! Why don’t you leave this little village and go to the city? You don’t look very rich.

We were unlucky but everyone else who goes there gets rich.

Oh yes! The streets of London are paved with gold! But, it’s a very long way away and I will have to walk all the way and 1 have no friends there. Anyway I can’t leave my cat behind.

Both friends: Take him with you!

Baron Munchausen in Russia

1 went on a journey to Russia. I was riding on a horse. It was winter and there was snow-snow everywhere. I could see no houses. Night was coming and I said to myself “Now, Kve lost my way. Where shall I stay for the night? There’s no house, not even a

tree!’’


Then I saw a very small thing standing up out of the snow. It was like a very small tree. It was only two feet high. I tied my horse to it and I lay down on the snow and fell asleep. I slept well. It was day when I opened my eyes and I was very surprised. I looked around and what do you think I saw? I was in a town and I was near a monument. I could not see my horse, but I could hear him; he was neighing. His voice came from high above me. I looked up and what do you think I saw? My horse was up the top of the monument; he was hanging from the top!

Now I knew what happened. The town was under snow when I fell asleep. The little tree to which I tied my horse was really the top of the monument. During the night a hot wind blew and the snow melted. So I was down in the street of the town and my horse was hanging from the top of the monument.

I had to do something. So I took my gun; I shot carefully and I cut the rope with the shot. The horse fell down into the street. It did not get hurt and I got on it and went on my journey.

GRAMMAR

May = defective verb

may = mümkün mü? (izin isterken)

AFFIRMATIVE INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE


 


I?

you? ^ he?

; she?


 


gold, altın                                                                uiSwsm,

decide, Karar aimak                plague, veba

to make his fortune, istikbalini kazanmak rat, sıçan, fare difficulties, zorluklar search, aramak to ring, çalmak (çan) to seem, görünmek

PRINCIPAL PARTS – IRREGULAR VERBS blow – blew – blown choose – chose – chosen ride – rode – ridden lie • lay – lain fall – fell – fallen shut * shut – shut THE VERBS TO LIE – TO LIE – TO LAY

  1. 1.    to lie = yalan söylemek. Kurallı fiildir. 3 hali: lie – lied – lied. Good children don’t lie.

He lied to the teacher.

I have lied and I am ashamed.

  1. 2.     to lie = uzanmak. Kuralsız fiildir. 3 hali: lie – lay – lain.

, The park lies to the north of the city.

I lay on the bed because I was tired.

He has lain on my bed. Tell him to get off.

  1. 3.    to lay = sermek, yumurtlamak. Kuralsız fiildir. 3 hali: lay – laid – laid

This hen lays an egg every day.

He laid the bo* on the table.


Nouns

  1. 1.     İsim, bir özellik, meslek, akrabalık yada şahsiyete ilişkin unvanla ilişkiliyse, erkek ve dişiler için ayrı ayrı sözcükler bulunur. Böyle isimlerden birkaçını ilk derslerimizde gördük, father – mother, brother – sister, man – woman bu türden isimlerdi. Aşağıdaki ‘ tabloda bu türden isimler bulacaksınız.

boy – girl, oğlan – kız

brother – sister, kız kardeş – erkek kardeş

cock – hen, horoz – tavuk

dog – bitch, erkek köpek – kancık köpek

father – mother, anne – baba

gentleman – lady, bay – bayan

grandfather – grandmother, dede – nine

husband – wife, koca – karı

king – queen, kral – kraliçe

landlord – landlady, ev sahibi – ev sahibesi

lord – lady, lord – leydi

man * woman, erkek – kadın

nephew – niece, erkek yeğen – kız yeğen

daddy – mummy, baba – anne

sir – madam, beyefendi – hanımefendi,

Sir – Lady, (ünvan) Sör – Leydi

son – daughter, oğul – kız

uncle – aunt, amca, dayı – hala, teyze

  1. 2.     Kimi isimlerin eril biçimlerinin sonuna -ess eki getirir ve dişil isim yaparız, (b) maddesinde yer alan isimlerdeki kuralsızlıkları doğu­ran son hecedeki sesli harflere de dikkat edin.

a)     authur – authoress, erkek yazar – kadın yazar

prince – princess, prens – prenses

b)    actor – actress, aktör – aktris

conductor – conductress/ erkek şef – kadın şef director – directress,* erkek yönetici – kadın yönetici hunter – huntress,* erkek avcı – kadın avcı negro – negress, (zenci) siyah erkek – siyah kadın porter – portress, (zenci) kapıcı erkek kapıcı kadın tiger – tigress, erkek kaplan – dişi kaplan

* Dişil sözcük hemen hemen hiç kullanılmaz.

  1. 3.     Aşağıdaki gurupta isim ortaktır. Açıklama getirmezsek, erkek mi, dişi mi oldukları anlaşılmaz.

parent, ebeveyn friend, arkadaş cousin, kuzen chiid, çocuk baby, bebek servant, ev işçisi person, kişi, insan pupil, student, öğrenci bird, kuş cat, kedi elephant, fil

  1. İSİMLERİN KURALSIZ ÇOĞULLARI

İlk derslerde öğrendiklerimizin dışında, aşağıdaki kuralsız çoğullu isimleri de bildiklerimize ekleyebiliriz.

a)    Sonlarında ya da son hecelerinde sessiz harften sonra -o bulunan isimler çoğul eki olarak -es alırlar, hero – heroes, kahraman negro – negroes, zenci volcano – volcanoes, volkan potato – potatoes, patates tomato – tomatoes, domates

piano – pianos, piyano (bu süzcük diğerlerine benzemez)

b)     Sonlarında -f olan kimi isimler daha önce gürdüğümüz gibi çoğul durumda -ves almazlar. Bu isimlerden bazıları şunlardır: roof – roofs çatı

hoof – hoofs, toynak                                                                 #

chief – chiefs, başkan

c)     Bileşik isimler father-in-law, kayınbaba mother-in-law, kaynana son-in-law, damat daughter-in-law, gelin brother-in-law, enişte, bacanak sister-in-law, görümce, elti

Bu sözcüklerin çoğullan da -s alır. Ama kelimenin sonuna değil, ilk bileşen kelimenin ardına.

fathers-in-law

mothers-in-law

sons-in-law

daughters-in-law

brothers-in-law

sisters-in-law

Aşağıdaki isimler çift çoğul eki alırlar: man-servant, men-servants woman-servant, women-servants

maid-servant sözcüğünün çoğulu maid-servants biçimindedir.




 

  1. The crow and the jug

A thirsty crow found a jug with some water in it; but there was so little in it that the crow could not reach it. It tried and tried, but it could not reach the water. It was dying of thirst although water was so near. At last the crow had a bright idea!

It began to drop little stones into the jug, and with each little stone the water rose higher. The more stones it dropped the higher the water rose. At last it was so high that it came to the top of the jug and the clever crow could reach it with its beak.

The story teaches us that when we need something very much we can get it if we are clever and we try.

  1. The lion, the fox, and the donkey

A lion, a fox and a donkey went out to hunt together. After a little while they killed a few animals and they decided to sit down and have a meal. The lion said to the donkey: “Divide the animals between us”. The donkey divided the animals into three equal parts and then politely said to the lion and the fox: “I have divided the animals into three equal parts; you may choose your share now.” This made the lion very angry ; he jumped upon the donkey , and tore it to pieces. Then he asked the fox to make the division. The fox divided it in a very huge share for the lion and left only a very small share for herself. “My dear friend”, said the lion, “who taught you to divide like this? You are very clever”! The fox replied “I took a lesson from the donkey.”

This is what people call “the lion’s share”.


 

  1. The parrot

A man once had a beautiful green parrot. He taught the bird to say: ‘‘No doubt about it”.

One night the man buried some money in different places in the village. Next morning he went through the village with his bird and said: “My parrot is wise. He will show me where to dig for money.”

Whenever he came to a place where there was money he said: ”0 wise parrot, if I dig here, shall I find any gold?”

The parrot looked very wise, and said “No doubt about it”. Then the man dug the money out of the ground and showed it to the people who stood around.

A young man watched the parrot for some time and he thought. ‘‘If I had that parrot, I could be rich.”

So he said to the man who had the parrot, “Will you sell your parrot and, if you sell it, how much do you want?”

The man said, “I will sell him for one thousand pieces of gold.” “That is too much money”, cried the young man.

“But my parrot is worth the money” said the man.

“Aren’tyou, o wise parrot?”he then asked the parrot.

No doubt about it” answefeu me peium.

This answer pleased the young man so much that he paid the one thousand pieces of gold and wont away with the parrot.

He lost no time. He at once took the parrot out to look for money. He asked him many times, “If I dig here, shall I find gold?” Every time the parrot answered, “No doubt about it.”

But though the young man dug and dug he never found a single gold piece.

At last he felt sure that the man cheated him. “O wise parrot,” he said, “I think I was a fool to give a thousand pieces of gold for you.”

The parrot looked very wise and answered, “No doubt about it.” The parrot looked so funny as he said this that the young man laughed and laughed.

“Well,” he said at last, “You told the truth this time, o wise parrot. After this! shall work. That is the only way to become a rich man.” “No doubt about It ” agreed the parrot, and for the second time he told the truth.


 

  1. The crickets’ school

Under a thick bush the crickets were having a lesson. It was not dark, when they usually sing; it was daytime and that was where their school was, under the bush.

The teacher was a big fat cricket who knew a lot of things about crickets and other creatures, and the students were small young crickets who came to school to learn all about the world, themselves, and other creatures.

This is the lesson the big fat cricket gave the young crickets. “With what part of your body do you run and leap? ” he asked. “With our legs” the young crickets cried.

“Do you do anything else with your legs?” he asked.

“We clean ourselves with them”, said one little cricket.

“We use them and our mouths to make houses in the ground“ said another.

“Oh yes, and we hear with our two front legs” cried one clever little fellow.

“That’s right,” replied the fat old cricket. “Most creatures hear with things called ears, that grow on the sides of their heads, but I think it’s much better to hear with your legs, as we do.”


“But how strange it must be not to hear with your legs!” cried all the little crickets together.

“There are many strange things to see in the great world”, said their teacher. “1 have seen some big, big creatures with only two legs and no wings at all.”

“How bad! We feel sorry for them ” cried the little crickets. “How can these creatures walk then?”, they asked.

“It must be very difficult”, said the old cricket. “I was very sorry for them too”. Then he spread his wings and stretched hissix legs to show how well he could walk or fly.

“But how can they sing, if they have no wings?” asked the clever little cricket again.

“They sing through their mouths, just like the birds” said their teacher. “But it must be much easier to sing with your wings, as we do.”

“1 could tell you many strange things about these two-legged creatures,” he continued, “because I have seen the houses in which they live. Then there are some other big four-footed creatures which are terrible to look at, my children. The two-legged creatures call the four-footed creatures, animals. Animals do not fly like birds or us. Only birds and insects fly. Some of these animals are very big, bigger than the two-legged creatures. Most animals have some white hard and sharp things in their mouth. They eat with those sharp things which sometimes cut like a knife. They call them teeth.”

“Have all animals got teeth?” asked a little cricket. “Well, almost all. There is a sea-animal, the seal, which has no teeth.”

“1 heard that there are some creatures that cannot hear. Is that true? asked another cricket.

“Yes,” replied the teacher, ‘and there are very many of them; they haven’t even got legs Everybody calls them snakes/’ “How do they know where they go when they cannot hear?” asked the clever cricket.

“Oh, they know because they can feel their way with their tongues” said the teacher.

“Is that why they always stick their tongues out. as you told usthe other day?” asked all the crickets together.

“That’s right. ” said the old cricket, “and they don’t need legs because they can creep”.


“They are very funny creatures” said the little crickets.

“Yes, they may be funny, but they are very dangerous and we must be very careful when we see them. Most snakes eat insects” the tccchcr.

crié 2 the little crickets »nci tney iooked around in

IF

ICO! ■

“How sbout that iîj>yr-footnL! crs8turc hss white hairs on the

öiues wi ııoıı,vWü,V” ZZr.l’V —             ‘««HatHnwH

call that?”

“Oh, that’s a cat,” said the old cricket. “Those white hairs are whiskers. A cat feels with its whiskers.”

“That’s another funny thing!” remarked all the crickets.

At that moment the big cricket said: “Well, we’ve learned a lot about zoology to-day. Now you can leap around till dark and then we shall meet again because it’s song-time. So, good-bye till then.”

“Good-bye! good-bye,” said all the little crickets and the lesson was over.

WORDS

crow, karga

to die of (hunger), (açlık)tan ölüyorum

thirst, susuzluk

bright idea, parlak fikir

to drop, düşürmek

stone, taş

beak, gaga

the more … the higher, olabildiğince yüksek

donkey, eşek

to hunt, avlanmak,

meal, öğün, yemek

to divide, bölmek

equal, eşit

politely, nazikçe

share, bölüştürmek

tore it to pieces, parçalara ayırmak,

division, bölme

the lion’s share, aslan payı


“But how strange it must be not to hear with your legs!” cried all the little crickets together.

“There are many strange things to see in the great world”, said their teacher. “I have seen some big, big creatures with only two legs and no wings at all.”

“How bad! We feel sorry for them ” cried the little crickets. “How can these creatures walk then?”, they asked.

“It must be very difficult”, said the old cricket. “I was very sorry for them too”. Then he spread his wings and stretched hissix legs to show how well he could walk or fly.

“But how can they sing, if they have no wings?” asked the clever little cricket again.

“They sing through their mouths, just like the birds” said their teacher. “But it must be much easier to sing with your wings, as we do.”

“1 could tell you many strange things about these two-legged creatures,” he continued, “because I have seen the houses in which they live. Then there are some other big four-footed creatures which are terrible to look at, my children. The two-legged creatures call the four-footed creatures, animals. Animals do not fly like birds or us. Only birds and insects fly. Some of these animals are very big, bigger than the two-legged creatures. Most animals have some white hard and sharp things in their mouth. They eat with those sharp things which sometimes cut like a knife. They call them teeth.”

“Have all animals got teeth?” asked a little cricket. “Well, almost

Thara !e 2 caa.anima!                                                           j which haR HQ teeth.”

“I heard that there are some creatures that cannot hear, is that true?” asked another cricket.

“Yes,” replied the teacher, “and there are very many of them; they haven’t even got legs. Everybody calls them snakes.” “How do they know where they go when they cannot hear?” asked the clever cricket.

“Oh, they know because they can feel their way with their tongues” said the teacher.

“Is that why they always stick their tongues out. as you told usthe other day9“ asked all the crickets together.

“That’s right. ” said the old cricket, “and they don’t need legs because they can creep“.


parrot, papağan no doubt about it, kuşkusuz to bury, gömmek wise, bilge

pices of gold, altın para

to be worth, kıymetinde olmak

single, tek

to cheat, aldatmak

fool, aptal

to become, olmak

cricket, circir böceği

bush, çalı

creature, yaratık

leap, atlamak

to spread, yaymak, sermek to stretch, germek two-legged, iki ayaklı four-footed, dört ayaklı tongue, dil

to stick out, çıkarmak, uzatmak to creep, sürünmek, emeklemek in fear, korkmuş hairs, saçlar, kıllar whiskers, kedi bıyığı zoology, hayvanbilim song-time, şarkı saati to be over, bitmek the lesson was over, ders bitti

PRINCIPAL PARTS – IRREGULAR VERBS become – became – become grow – grew – grown spread – spread – spread stick – stuck – stuck creep – crept – crept


Poems Mister Fly

What & p                          ^ ^ _________

He goes where he pleases, low or high,

And can walk just as well with his feet to the sky, A ~ f n*n on the floor.

He eats the sugar anu y.-co ~

Nor ever once asks what there is to pay;

Then on the edge of the jug he stands,

And cleans his wings with his feet and hands. This done through the window he hurries away, And gives a buzz, as if to say,

“At present I haven’t a minute to stay,

But I’ll be back again and again in the day”

Such a strange little fellow is Mister Fly,

Who goes where he pleases, low or high.

The Sea

The sea! the sea! the open sea!

The blue, the fresh, the ever free!

Without a mark, without a bound,

The earth’s wide regions it runs around;

It plays with the clouds; it mocks the skies;

Or like a sleeping creature lies.

i’m on the sea! I’m on the sea!

I’m where forever I will be;

With the blue above, and the blue below,

And silence wherever I may go.

If a storm will come and awake the deep,

What matter? I shall ride and sleep.


Sea – Fever

/ must go down to the seas again, to the lonely sea and the sky, And all I want is a tall ship and a star to steer her by,

And the wheel’s kick and the wind’s song

and the white sail’s shaking, * And a grey mist on the sea s face, and a grey dawn breaking.

(John Masefield).


 

 

 

 


sharp, keskin, zeki

fellow, kişi, adam, herif

goes where he pleases, neresi

hoşuna giderse oraya gidiyor

edge, kenar, ayrıt

this done, madem ki bu oluyor

buzz, uğultu

at present, şu an için

free, Özgürleştirmek, özgür

mark, işaret

bound, sınır

region, bölge

to mock, alay etmek

silence, sessizlik

storm, fırtına

the deep, derinlikler (su)

what matter, zararı yok

ride – rode – ridden, (at, bisiklet) lonely, yalnız başına to steer, dümen kullanmak kick, tekme, sail, yelken mist, sis dawn, şafak to break, kırmak the wheel’s kick, dümen vu­runtusu

a grey dawn breaking, gri bir

şafak atıyor


Grammar Revision (lessons 15 • as) »-

PREPOSITIONS DURUM EKLERİ

it_ “ —

¡i i ^

kadar gerekli olduklarını görmüştük. Fiillerle birlikte kullanııaraK bize geniş anlatım olanakları sunuyorlardı. Bu çok çeşitliliğin yarattığı öğrenme güçlüğü, bir yandan da kelime haznemizi çeliştiriken karşılaştığımız zorluklardan biriydi.

İngilizce’yi kullanırken dikkat etmemiz gerekli konulardan biri, anlamca benzeyen fiillerin çoğu zaman sadece birinin kurmak istediğimiz cümlede işimize yaradığıdır. Aşağı yukarı aynı anlamı veren fiiller arasında varolan ayrıntı farklılıkları bize görünmeyen ama gerçekte varolan hatalar yapmamıza yolaçar.

Türkçe’deki ’’ulaşmak, varmak“ sözcüğünün karşılığı örneğin İngilizce’de arrive, come to, get to fiilleriyle karşılanabilir. Ama tüm bu fiillerin ayrı bir kullanım yeri vardır.

Ana dili Türkçe olan öğrenci, Türkçe’deki “ismin halleri“ özelliği ile İngilizce’deki durum eklerini kesinlikle birbirine karıştırmama!!- dır. Durum ekleri de ismin halleri gibi fiilin bir parçasıdır ama benzerlik orada biter. Türkçe’de ismin iyelik dahil altı hali olması­na karşılık, İngilizce’de bu onlarla ifade edilebilir.

Konuyu iyice özümlemek için özellikle 15. derse bakmalısınız. Oradaki deyimler ve fiiller çok kullanılanlardan başlıcalarıdır. Alıştırma defterlerinizde verilen yazılı ve sözlü alıştırmalar da bu konuda çok işinize yarayacaktır,

FUTURE TENSE GELECEK ZAMAN

  1. Konuşurken kısaltmalarla konuştuğumuzu, yazarkense sözcü­kleri tümüyle yazdığımızı unutmayalım. HI, you’ll, he’ll, she’ll, we’ll, shan’t, won’t diyoruz.
  2. Bazan da gelecek zamanla talep bildiren cümleler yaparız. Emir, istek, dilek, söz verme cümleleri bu zamanla ifade edilebilirler. 16. derste bu tür örneklere olumlu ve olumsuz halleriyle örnekler verilmişti. Vurgulamamız gereken nokta, talep cümlelerinde, 3. tekil şahsın shall, ya da will ile kullanılabileceğidir. Talep, konuşana aitse, shall kullanırız, will ise, 3. şahsın taleplerinden sözederken kullanırız. “Paddy shall stay at home“ said his mother. Cümlesinde, konuşan, kendi emrini belirttiği için, Paddy- ’nin gelecek zamanda evde kalacağı vurgulandığı için shall kullanıyoruz.


Ama eğer, Paddy will not study dersek, Paddy’nin belki de kendi arzusuyle çalışmayacağını söylemiş oluruz. Çalışmamasının baş­ka bir nedeni de olabilir ama sonuç olarak Paddy çalışmayaca­ktır.

  1. Şimdi de gelecek zaman belirten çeşitli kullanımlardan öğrenmiş olduklarımızı toparlayalım.

a)    Yakın bir gelecekte olacak bir durumu anlatırken present conti­nuous tense kullanabilir. Türkçe’de de benzer bir durum vardır. Örnekler:

she’s coming here tonight.

I’m going to Crete tomorrow.

b)    Fiilin mastar haliyle kullanılan I’m going to da gelecekte olacak ve artık kararlaştırılmış, kesin olarak yapılacak bir işi anlatırken kullanılır.

Örnekler:

He is going to marry Helenk

They’re going to begin school next Monday.

She is going to have a baby.

It’s going to rain any minuie now.

J ,            — ■ –         ^ w ** *-T    ««•««•• V kVl IW I

öğrendik. Türkçe deki gelecek zamanla büyük benzerlikler gö­sterir.

Örnekler:

Tk«        — -4 « – >

–      ■*!?! Ζ !|b SS6, ’ / =-■ İIİÜİ.İI ,


’’DEĞİL Mİ“ CÜMLELERİ

  1. İki çeşittir:

a)     Cümle olumluyken, öznenin olumsuz durumunu kullanarak sorma

b)     Cümle olumsuzken, özneyi kullanarak sorma.

İlk durumda, olumluluğu onaylatmayı amaçlarız. İkinci durumday­sa, birşeylerin olmadığını, olmayacağını kısacası olumsuzluğunu onaylatmak için sorarız. Türkçe’de ise, “her iki durumda da, “değil mi?” diye sorarız.

Örnek:

Miss Staley is a teacher, isn’t she?

Bu cümlede Miss Staley’in bildiğimiz öğretmenliğini emin olmak için soruyoruz.

Miss Staley isn’t a doctor, is she? Burada da, Doktor olmadığını biliyoruz ve bunu karşımızdakine onaylatmak için soruyoruz.

  1. Bu tür cümlelerde bir küçük güçlük, ana cümlede yardımcı fiil kullanılmadığı zaman çıkar. Bu durumlarda, do fiilini gerekli zamanda kullanarak sorumuzu sorarız.

Örnekler:

He went to Paris, didn’t he ?

She likes ice-cream doesn’t she?

They don’t speak English, do they ?

We didn’t go out, did we?

THE VERB «TO HAVE»

TO HAVE FİİLİ

Üç kitabımızda da gördüğümüz gibi, to have fiili, birçok yerde kullanılır, to be yardımcı fiili ile birlikte en çok kullanılan yardımcı ‘ fiildir. Ayrıca fiil olarak da “var” anlamında kullanılır. Çeşitli durumlarda da, “almak, yemek, sürekli yapmak” anlamlan verir. Bunları başlıklar halinde görelim:

a)     Fiil olarak get fiili ile aynı anlamı verir.

I have a pencil. Have you a pencil? He hasn’t a pencil He had a scooter. Had you a car? They hadn’t a house.

Görmüş olduğumuz gibi, İngilizce konuşurken, bu biçimi cjaha çok tercih ediyoruz. Burada da, do yardımcı fiili kullanılmıyor.

b)    Yardımcı fiil olarak, present perfect simple ve present perfect continuous tense ile cümle yaparken, yardımcı fiil olarak kullanı­lıyor. Kullanıldığı başka zamanları da öğreneceğiz. Soru ve olumsuz cümlede de “do” almıyor.

He’s got a kite. Have you got any cigarettes? They’ve got a

cabin-cruiser.

c)     Fiil olarak, “yaPmak” , “almak” anlamında kullanılıyor ve bu durumda elbette soru ve olumsuz biçimleri diğer filler gibi, “do” yardımcı fiili ile yapılıyor.

She has opened the door.

They have come back from school.

We have been studying English for 3 years.

d)     Gereklilik ve zorunluluk bildiren durumlarda, mastar eki “to” alarak ve eksikli bir fiil olarak kullanımını 109. sayfada gördük. Bu durumda da, soru ve olumsuz anlam “do” yardımcı fiili yardımıyla yapılır.

I have a bath every day. Did you have lunch at 1 o’clock? He didn’t have a walk because it was raining.

e)     “Must” fiilinin yerine kullanımını ileride ayrıntıları ile göreceksiniz,

a)     maddesinde belirttiğimiz anlamı ile “var” anlamında conti­nuous tense ile kullanılmadığını da geçerken belirtelim.

She has to go home now. Did you have to study yesterday?

We didn’t have to work yesterday because it was a holiday.


PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

Geçmişte, bir zaman aralığında sürekli olarak yapılmış bir işi anlatır. Türkçe’de -iyordu- ekiyle yaptığımız zaman gibi olmakla birlikte, kullanımı küçük farklılıklar gösterir.

Bu zamana ilişkin ilk bilmemiz gereken, tüm sürekli zamanlarda olduğu gibi, to be yardımcı fiilinin ikinci durumu ve fiil kökü + ing alınarak yapılır.

Örnekler

He was walking. They were running. She was driving.

Geçmişte belli bir zaman aralığında olmuş eylemin ne zaman olduğu belliyse ek cümlecik olarak bu da konabilir. Ayrıca, Türkçe’de -diği zaman, -dığında ekiyle belirttiğimiz durumlarda, past continuous tense cümleciğine when bağlacı ile bir yan cümlecik eklenebilir.

Aşağıdaki örneklerden dördüncüsü, “Telefon çaldığı zaman (ya da çaldığında ) biz uyuyorduk diye Türkçe söylenebilir. Telefonun çalması anlık bir olay olduğu, uzun zaman sürmediği için de yarr cümlecik past tense ile kurulmuştur.

She was going to the market at 10 o’clock.

He was having his bath yesterday evening.

We were having lunch at 3 o’clock in the afternoon.

We were sleeping when the telephone rang.

We were fishing very early yesterday morning.


Ama eğer, iki eylem birbirine paralel olarak sürüyorsa, cümlenin her iki parçasında da geçmişte sürekli zaman kullanılır. Bu kullanımda, Türkçe’deki iken, -ken ekine karşılık gelen while bağlacı kuManılır.

Örnekler:

Michael and Kathy were studying while Mr, and Mrs. Heath were reading.

She was cooking in the kitchen while her husband was mowing the lawn.

We were swimming while our parents were sitting on the beach.

Türkçe’de geçmişte sürekli zamanla anlattığımız, İngilizce’deyse past tense ile anlatılan bir durum çoğu kez ana dili Türkçe olan öğrenciyi şaşırtır. Geçmişte sıürekli olarak alışkanlık kabilinden yapı­lan işleri anlatan cümlelerdir bunlar. “Ben eskiden her gün koşardım (ya da koşuyordum) deriz örneğin. Ama İngilizle bunu “Ben eskiden hergün koştum” diye söylerler. İki örnekle hem bu zamanın farklı iki kullanımını verelim hem de dediğimizi açıklayalım:

Birisi tatilini Spetsae’de geçiriyor olsun.

a)     I get up very early during my holiday at Spetsae.

Bir başkası da otobüse yetişmek için koşuyor olsun.

b)    I’m running to catch the bus

Tatilden dönen adam bize ne yaptığını anlatırken şöyle diyece­ktir:

aa) I got up (kalkıyordum) very early during my holiday at Spetsae last summer.

İkinci adam ise:



 

bb) I was running to catch the bus at 9 a.m. yesterday.

Görüldüğü gibi ilk adamın anlatımı alışkanlığa ikincisininki ise belli bir zaman aralığında oiup bitmişliğe karşılık geliyor.

SO – NEITHER

“Ben de öyle”, “ben de …” yada, “ne de ben” sen, o, biz, siz, onlar anlamlan İngilizce’de bu terimlerle verilir, so = ben de (olumlu) anlamı verir, neither = ne de ben (olumsuz) anlamı verir. Şu özelliklere dikkat etmeliyiz:

a)     Yardımcı fiil kullanılıyorsa, bu biçimde kullanım için iki kez yinelenir.

b)     Diğer durumlarda ise do yardımcı fiili kullanılır.

c)     Fiilin ve öznenin yapıları karşılıklıdır.

Konuyu iyice kavramak için yazılı ve sözlü araştırmaların üzerin­de dikkatle durmalıyız.

ONE – ONES

Türkçe’de bunu, şunu, buna, şuna , … olanı gibi sözcüklerle belirtiriz bu anlamı.

Örnekler:

Bu kitabı mı yoksa şunu mu istiyorsun?

Do you want this book or that one?

Hangisini istiyorsun, kırmızı kalemi mi, yoksa, yeşil olanı mı? Which do you want the red pencil or the green one?

Çoğul cümlelerde ise şöyle deriz:

Bu şeftalileri İstemiyorum, şunları istiyorum.

I don’t want these peaches, I want those ones.

Bu durumda işaret zamiri de kullanabiliriz. I don’t want these peaches, i want those.

IDIOMS – ADVERBIAL PHRASES

  1. With the word “idea”.

A good idea. A bad idea. A bright idea.

  1. With the verb “to do”.

To do well. To do badly. To do my best.

  1. With the word “trouble”.

To go into the trouble. To take the trouble. To look for trouble. To get into trouble. To give trouble.

  1. With the word “kind”.

It’s very kind of you. It’s terribly (or awfully) kind of you. It’s most kind of you.

  1. With the verb “to answer”.

To answer the door. To answer the bell. To answer the telephone.

  1. Wishes.

Have a nice time. Have a nice journey. Enjoy yourself. Good luck.

  1. Adverbials of Time.

At present. A short while. A little while. In a short (or little) while. Day after day.

  1. Other phrases.

At last. At least. Of course. Come on! Good riddance! In fear. The lion’s share. No doubt about it. A cock and bull story. To have a heart of gold. There is no end to it.

GEOGRAPHY

A THE FIVE CONTINENTS

  1. Asia
  2. Africa
  3. Europe
  4. Australia
  5. America


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



* Capitals of countries


 


In the Arab Countries


Abu Simbel

Alamein

Alexandria

Algiers

Kuwait

Amman

Cairo

Baghdad

Damascus

Riyadh

Jidda

Benghazi

Casablanca

Mosul

Doha

Tunis

 

 

 

 



Melbourne (Australia) Sydney (Australia) Canberra (Australia) # Wellington (New Zealand) Tokyo (Japan)

Peking (China)

New Delhi (India) Montreal (Canada)

Buenos Aires (Argentina) Brazilia (Brazil)

OCEANS AND THE IMPORTANT SEAS

Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean Antarctic Ocean Mediterranean Sea Adriatic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Gulf of Mexico Red Sea English Channel Bering Sea Caspian Sea

DI^aL C

In Europe                                        In other parts of the World

Danub’                                     Th© Nile (Africa^

The Rhine                                         The Amazon (South America)

ine Mississippi vu.o.m.j The Missouri (U.S.A.)


The Dneister           The Congo (Africa)

The Thames             The Yenisei (Siberia)


 


 

IMPORTANT MOUNTAINS In Europe

The Alps

Soain1!

1              \~r

Mont Blanc (France)

Mt. Etna (Sicily) Matterhorn (Switzerland) Mt. Olympus (Greece)

Birmingham Bristol Leeds Manchester Liverpool Seas

The English Channel

The Irish Sea

The North Sea

Pentland Firth

Regions

England

Wales

Scotland

Northern Ireland

In other parts of the world

The Himalayas Mt. Everest (Himalayas)

Mt. Aconcagua (Aryentina)

peoples

The English The Scots The Irish The Welsh Rivers The Thames The Severn The Avon The Tyne The Clyde


 


t


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Part

A

TRAVEL

A ^ A T/^I T

A « Ÿ-l-t : I XI-t- T-V

 

 

 

 

 

 




 


 

 


the flight uçuş

it leaves at 7 p.m. exactly

tarn on dokuzda kalkıyor

that is yam

local time yerei saat

the tickets biletler

we have decided karar verdik

that is to say daha doğrusu

we would like istiyorduk general information gene! bilgiler

so that……… için

to plan planlamak a rest dinlenme it refreshes you yorgunluğu­nuzu alır

it makes you feel sızı his­settirir

it gives you energy kuvvet verir

such a (beautiful country) o

kadar (guzet bir ulkej the countryside kır traditional geteneksei

Yes, the flight leaves Heathrow at 7 p.m. exactly and you arrive three hours later, that is, 8 p.m. local time, 10 p.m. English time.

Excuse me, just one moment please.

Yes, you can get the tickets from this office tomorrow morning; we have them ready for you… You’re welcome… Good-bye.

Yes? May I help you please, sir?

Yes. My wife and I have decided that is to say, my wife has decided to take a short holiday.

I would like some general information so that I, we, can plan our holiday Oh! what a good idea1 A holiday is always a pleasant rest; it refreshes you makes you feel younger; gives you energy for the win­ter’s work.

Are you going abroad or staying in Britain9 Oh! I have always wanted to visit other parts of Britain. It’s such a beautiful country the lovely countryside, the architecture the his­tory, the traditional old cities fishing

indeed gerçekten

let me show you size gös­tereyim

interesting places ilginç yerler

of course tabı, elbette different customs başka gelenekler

even further away daha bile uzak

charming hoş atmosphere atmosfer, hava the avenues bulvarlar

an accordion akordeon a zither çok telli bir çalgı in fact gerçekten

Yes, indeed.

Have you been to Wales or the Lake District? Scotland, perhaps?

I have always wanted to visit Scotland… The countryside…. the fishing.

Welt, let me show you some interesting pla­ces in Scotland.

No. No, I think my wife wants to go abroad. Of course — Britain is our own country, our home.

Naturally your wife would like to see otheP parts of the world, other people, different

customs.

Do you want to go to Europe or perhaps even further away?

No! I think, to Europe.

To France perhaps. What about Paris? A charming city, full of atmosphere; the Avenues, the little pavement “cafés”, Ver­sailles, Place Pigatle, the Lido, the night life. The Moulin Rouge.

The Moulin Rouge.

No, no. I think perhaps somewhere a bit more quiet?

Well, perhaps Austria, Vienna or perhaps a smaller town, quiet walks in the mountains, the edelweiss, the little painted wooden houses. A country full of accordions, zithers and friendly people.

Austria, the “Sound of Music”, Mozart, Strauss…

No, we’ve been to Vienna; we haven’t been there for a long time, not since 1970; we want to go somewhere new.

Italy perhaps?…

Michelangelo, Verdi, spaghetti, pizza…

Oh! you want to go to southern Europe; that’s a wonderful idea. I go there myself every year.

In fact, I am going this year too; I am going


to Greece:

‘Where on the soft summer nights the moon and the stars light up the wine-dark sea. Where Aristotle and Socrates have walked under the silver olive trees. Where the brightly coloured boats glide across the glittering sea and the sun warms the white marble all day”.

“The Isles of Greece”. “The Isles of Greece”.

It’s so beautiful, and if you go there, too, perhaps I shall see you.

Perhaps I can show you the paths where the ancient Gods have walked — Apollo and Artemis.

Venus and Adonis…

“Where on the soft summer nights the moon and the stars light up the wine-dark sea. Where Socrates and Aristotle have walked under the silver olive trees. Where the brightly coloured boats glide across the glittering sea and the sun warms the white marble all day”.


 

 

 


we can meet her there ora­da onunla görüşebiliriz

foreign countries yaban ülkeler

a guide kılavuz

because of.. …dan dolayı tulips lâle

And perhaps we can meet her there too, she can show us the paths where the ancient Gods have walked. We’re really very lucky, dear.

Lucky?

Yes, in foreign countries you’re very lucky to have your own guide, and she’s a very nice girl.

Well?

Well, as I said. We don’t want to go to Hol­land because of the tulips; we have tulips in our garden.

France is too noisy.

Germany is too quiet.


Finland is too far away.

So, we must go South.

South, where on the soft summer nights… … the moon and the stars light up the wine- dark sea…

…and the sun warms the white marble…

f

…and we have our own guide…


 

 


he booked rezervasyon yaptı

we have changed our minds fikrimizi değiştirdik

exactly aynen

Good morning. May I help you, madam? Thank you. I am Mrs. Williams.

My husband booked two tickets yesterday. Oh! yes.

Two tickets for the soft summer nights, the moon, the stars…

Oh! yes.

…where the sun warms the white marble… Yes! Indeed!

We have changed our minds. We want two tickets for Scotland.

We want to go to Lochness.

Oh!…. the fishing?

Exactly!


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




what’s the time? saat kaç? by my watch benim saatime göre

are you sure? eminmisin? that’s the right time doğru saat bu

they are late geç kaldılar they should have come gel­miş olmalıydılar

out of order bozuk

I must take off Qikarmaliyim apron onluk tonight bu gece

I have spoken to Bill Bill ile konuştum

that must be them onlar olmalı

What’s the time?

It’s eight thirty, by my watch.

Are you sure that’s the right time?

Yes, of course I am sure.

They are late, they should have come here already.

Have you telephoned?

The telephone is out of order.

Oh! yes. I forgot.

There now, I’m ready Just a minute, I must take my apron off

Perhaps they’ve forgotten that they’re coming here tonight.

No, I’m sure they remember I have spoken to Bill at work this week.

He knows they are coming.

Oh! here they are. That must be them.

Go and open the door, please Tom

I musi teli you size söylemeliyim

a dog has bitten bir köpek (onu) ısırmış

is he badly hurt? yarası kötü mü?

we have taken him to the doctor onu doktora götürdük we took him to hospital onu hastaneye götürdük they’ve given him two stitches ona iki dikiş attılar is he still in hospital? hâlâ hastanede mi7 my mother has stayed with him Annem onunla kaldı

we’ve had trouble başımız dertteydi

 


wild vahşi

Sorry we’re l^te.

I’m afraid we’re very late.

Oh! never mind. Please, take off your coats. Please, come in, sit down.

Thank you.

Sit down.

Thank you.

I must tell you what has happened.

A dog has bitten our son John.

Oh! dear! Is he all right? Is he badly hurt? Tom, do you know a dog has bitten poor lit1 tie Johnny?

Oh! dear, is he O.K.?

Well, the dog has bitten his leg quite badly. It is a big cut.

Of course, we have taken him to the doctor. In fact, we took him to hospital at once. They’ve given him two stitches.

Oh! Is he still in hospital?

No, no. He’s all right now.

My mother has stayed with him tonight- He is being very good.

Well, I suppose you would like a drink now? Oh! yes, indeed.

Yes, thank you!

And we’ve had trouble with the police.

Oh! really. What has happened?

Well; it was about the dogs.

Oh! Why?

Well, you have to tell the police about wild dogs

Oh’ was it wild7

I don t know 1 have never seen it before. But the__doctor at_the hospjtal telephoned the


we have travelled all over Europe bütün Avrupayı gezdik

we have enjoyed ourselves

eğlendik

I have always wanted

daima istemiştim

lately geçenlerde

we haven’t seen them at all

ontarı hiç görmedik although her ne kadar

the book has just come out

kitap yem çıkmış a writer yazar

neither have I (read it) ne de

ben okudum

I must ask him for one

ondan (birim) istemeliyim I must serve yemek servisi yapmalıyım

it’s all ready her şey hazır

Oh! thank you very much, how kind of you.

How was your holiday?

It was wonderful.

We have travelled all over Europe, and we have enjoyed ourselves very much. But I am happy to be home again!

We’ve spent all our money!

In fact, we’ve brought you a little present. Oh! how kind, What is it? it’s 3 ciock.

Mmm, thank you very much.

Here is it. It is from Switzerland.

Oh! how kind of you! I have always wanted a Swiss clock.

It’slovely.

Have you seen the Thompsons lately?

No, we haven’t seen them at all. Although Jim has telephoned.

How are they?

They’re very well. Jim’s new book has just

come out.

Oh! Is Jim a writer?

Yes. He has written three books already. The last one is about History.

Is it good?

I haven’t read it yet.

Neither have I but he’s given it to us.

Yes, I must ask him for one. I like Jim’s books. You must read it too. Jenny Yes But first I must serve the dinner. Come into the dining-room, please.

We have had no time to eat today.

Well, come along then; it’s all ready.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Unit7/7


 

WA

W

JL

PREPARATION

FOR

THE

THEATRE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



do we have to go? gitmemiz

gerekiyor mu?

well, I have to benim gitmem

gerekiyor

a critic eleştirmen it’s my ]ob işim bu

local yerel

an actor tiyatrocu

I would like to isterdim

Do we have to go to the theatre tonight? Well, I have to. I am a critic, it’s my job, you don’t have to, if you don’t want to.

There is a good programme on television tonight.

Yes, and there’s a good film on at the local

cimema.

But I have to c)o to the theatre and write about it for the newspaper. They are paying me to do this work.

What is on at the local cinema?

“Under the Volcano” with Albert Finney; he’s a very good actor.

I want to see him.

Perhaps we can go and see him next week. Oh, yes. I would like to. It’s a marvellous


to admire hayran olmak

 




several times birkaç defa how many times? kaç defa?

do you remember? hatir- liyormusun?

It’s my work bu benim işim

to spend time zaman geçirmek

I don’t think so zannet­miyorum

round the corner köşeyi dö­nünce

it would be nice iyi olur would you like? ıstermısın?

We’re going to see “Hamiet” at the National Theatre

Oh, how interesting! I’ve seen Hamlet several times; how many times have you seen it? Oh, I’ve seen it about seven times, both at the theatre and in the cinema.

Do you remember the Russian film of Hamlet?

No, I haven’t seen that. But I have seen the film of Hamiet with Laurence Olivier; “To be or not to be, that is the question”.

To go to the theatre or to go to the cinema? You don’t have to come. I have to go. It’s my work.

No, no. I want to come. It’s nice to spend an evening with you, and perhaps, after the theatre we can go to a restaurant with some friends.

Certainly, if you like. Robert and Rosemary are going to be at the theatre tonight. We can take them with us perhaps.

Yes, I like them. Have we taken them to that little Italian restaurant near the theatre yet? No, I don’t think so. Do you think they are going to enjoy that better than the French one round the corner?

It’s quicker to go to the Italian one from the theatre.

We don’t want to be very late tonight.

I have work tomorrow.

Let’s go to the Italian restaurant then. I like it there.

Well, I’ve had a shave, are you going to have a shower?

I’ve already had a shower Now I have dressed

I think a cup of coffee would be nice Would you like one?

Yes,’ if you’re going to have one Hi is always

it is difficult zor(dur) the interval ara

cufMinks kol düğmeleri

are you having trouble?

zorluk çekiyormuşum? my tie boyunbağım

it’s hanging asılı cupboard dolap

I’m ready hazırım

Just putting on my jacket

ceketimi koyuveriyorum

my notebook defterim

your torch el fenerin so that you can see böylece görebilirsin

some perfume parfüm difficult to get something to drink in the in­terval of the theatre.

Yes, O.K.. I’m going to get you a coffee and one for me.

Now, where are my cuff-links? I have for­gotten where they are.

Anne, where are my cuff-links?

They are on the table, beside the bed.

The coffee is ready.

Oh yes, here they are. Thank you.

Here you are. Oh! Do you have any trouble? Oh! Where’s my tie?

Which one you’re going to put on?

Oh! The blue-one, t think.

Ah! It’s hanging in the cupboard.

Oh! thank you.

I’m ready. Have you drunk your coffee? Yes, I have. Just putting on my jacket.

Are you ready?

Yes, I’m ready. Do 1 look O.K.?

Mmm. You’re fine.

Have you got my notebook, and pens?

Yes, I have, and I have your little torch, so that you can see what you’re writing.

All right then, let’s go.

Oh! Just a minute. I have to put on some perfume.

Mmm! Marvellous! We’re going to have a nice evening.

Here’s your coat Come on Put it on and jet’s go


Part 1


 


öss___________


Aivr rcTATr

iuo â ij


 


 

 


 

make yourselves at home

rahatınıza bakın a chat sohbet

we spoke on the telephone, didn’t we? telefonda konuş­muştuk, değil mi? a young new couple genç yeni bir çift

just starting out In life

hayata atılmak üzereyken actually gerçekte

a flat daire

on the way yolda

rather epeyce

–     Good morning. Good morning. Come in — make yourselves at home.

Please sit down. We can have a nice chat. Well now, what can I do for you?

Mr. and Mrs___ ?

–     Brown, John Brown and this is my wife Anne.

–     Of course, I remember. A great pleasure. I remember now, we spoke on the telephone yesterday, didn’t we?

It’s always a pleasure to help a young new couple, just starting out in life.

–     Actually we’ve lived together for some years. Since we left school, haven’t we darling?

–     Yes, yes.„and…well you know….we wanted a larger flat now.

–     Oh! yes, I understand perfectly,…

A little one on the way, perhaps?

–     Well, we thought perhaps…

–     No, not yet, but we must think of the future, mustn’t we?

–     Yes, indeed. Begin a family, start a dynasty, perhaps.

–     We’re thinking of something rather smaller.


ambitious gözü yükseklerde

close to the centre merkeze yakın

near the zoo hayvanat bahçesine yakın

suitable uygun

a bank manager banka müdürü

he can invite his clients

müşterilerim davet edebilir I only started at the lærft last year daha geçen yıl bankada işe başladım as a clerk memur olarak it’s a steady job sağlam bir ‘Ş

they may lead yol gös­terebilir

in the past geçmişte satisfied memnun they make their way işlen ilerleyince

fortunately çok şükür

I’m sure emmim

after all ne de olsa

the basis of our society

toplumumuzun temelidir

our financial situation malı

durumumuz

at the moment şu anda I am curious to know exact-

Jy lanı fiöiçnmçk için can

atıyorum

Well, yes, we mustn’t be too ambitious, must we?

Perhaps a semi-detached house in a quiet part of the town.

We wanted somewhere close to the centre. We thought perhaps somewhere n§ar the Zoo.

Oh! Well I’m sure we can find something suitable.

My husband works in a central bank, you know.

Oh! yes, indeed. Ah’ A bank manager natu­rally wants to have a lovely home where he can invite his clients.

\ only started at the bank last year. I went into the bank as a clerk.

I’m a bank clerk in fact… It’s a steady job Oh1 well – small beginnings may lead to great things.

We have found in the past that many of our satisfied clients often come back again as they make their way in life And we want to satisfy our clients! Fortunately, I’m sure we are going to find something suitable After all, happy families are “the basis of our society”, are they not? Yes, indeed.

In fact our financial situation at the moment, that is to say, well actually ..

Quite1 I am curious to know how much money exactly you have in mind Mr Brown?


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


2/Units


A HH TTQF

i i x a vy                          xj

_ ‘“’X T> 1 ^ ^ Trn

İ U K£,1N 1


 

 


^ôSiWîiffev


 


 


as you can see gördüğünüz gibi

something of your own

kendinize ait bir şey a part of yourselves kendi­nizin bir parçası the tenant kıracı it’s a special bargain özel bir kelepir

you described tarif ettiniz

you could land a helicopter

bir helikopteri indirebilirsiniz

it’s large enough for kadar büyük

television set televizyon alı- t Cl sı

especially özellikle

it’s more responsible daha uygun, daha aklı basında you could sell it onu satabi­lirsiniz

Well, here we are.

A little light, perhaps? Well, as you see, this perfect traditional house, this charming flat, this “Home Sweet Home”, with its warm at­mosphere, will become something of your own – a part of yourselves.

The last tenant was a perfect gentleman. It’s a special bargain.

Yes, certainly…of course.

It’s not very large… you described it’s big enough for two or three people.

You could land a helicopter in this huge living-room.

But not a Jumbo-Jet!

Yes, but it’s large enough for two armchairs and a table

You don’t have a television set, do you9 Yes, actually we do

Oh1 dear. Oh! dear, especially with your eco­nomic problems as you said, its more re sponsible…perhaps you could sell it9 Anyway it’s better to read a book an interesting book, or a newspaper or some­thing


there’s no kitchen mutfak yok

we were born doğduk

to become a slave köle olmak

modern modern up to date çağa uygun

surely elbette, muhakkak

fast food ayaküstü yemek no smell of boiled cabbage

haşlanmış lahana kokusu olmayan

saucepans (saplı) tencere even I myself ben bile

we could manage bir yolunu bulabiliriz

for the heart kalp ıçın

she had a kettle boiling

çaydanlığı kaynatıyordu solid meal kuvvetli bir ogun veg ( vegetables) sebzeler gravy et suyu, et sosu

İ.VVII oFti V ‘V • vTtrrri viTi

I can’t think how they man­aged nasıl goçındıkleıını hayal edemıyoıum

Can we see the bedrooms, please?

And I wanted to see the kitchen.

Kitchen? There’s no kitchen.

But where can we cook?

Come. come. We were born in the 20th cen­tury. Women don’t cook in this day and age. Actually, I’m rather a good cook. Aren’t I, John?

Yes!

Oh! that is a pity! Sure you don’t want to become a stave to the kitchen stove all your life; we must be more modern, more up-to-

date.

But surely, even quite modern people do eat, don’t they?

How are we going to eat?

It’s just round the corner! the restaurant, t mean.

Fast food, you know!

No washing up, no smelt of boiled cabbage, no burnt saucepans.

Why even, even I myself…

Well, \ suppose it’s not a bad idea.

What do you think John?

Well, I suppose we could manage: but what about breakfast? Four o’clock tea?

Anne always brought me tea in bed in the mornings, and even in the 20th century, breakfast is the “Basis of our society” isn’t it? A light meal is better for your health!

While only yesterday i read butter is bad for the heart, but a nice cup of tea… even in the British Industry… but you could make a nice cup of tea over there.

My mother always had a kettle boiling. For lunch she always made a good solid meal – meat, two veg, Yorkshire pudding, gravy… AhJ but she didn’t go out to work, did she? Even so.. I can’t think how they managed. The family always hungry, always quarelling

simple basit

a micro-wave oven mikro­dalga bir fırın

they’re very practical çok

pratiktir

a little surprise for you sizin

için küçük bir sürpriz

how lonely ne kadar yalnız

how anonymous ne kadar

bilinmeyen

boring can sıkıcı

the neighbours komşular

locked behind its own door

kendi kapısının arkasında

kapalı

it’s not natural doğal değil

it is shared among ortak kullanılıyor

a group gurup a member of bir uye we could accept kabul ede­biliriz

such a bargain öyle iyi bir kelepir

such an opportunity öyle bir fırsat

the football pools lolo much too aristocratic gere- gınden fazla aristokratik


ımrptJoAiKu upımoKpoıtKO

about what to eat. The children sniffed around the kitchen for fresh bread. The milkman delivered milk every morning.

iviuiner was aiwtay:» mcu, one **qo atwaya cooking something…

No, no. We must make life more simple! How about a nice computerised micro-wave oven; you could put it in that corner. They’re very practical, you know. Fast food in your own home.

Perhaps a little expensive…

Let’s have a look at the bedrooms.

And the bathroom.

Ah! Well I have a little surprise for you. You know how lonely, how anonymous these modern flats are. So boring, no meetings with the neighbours, each family locked be­hind its own door. It’s not natural — no friendly “good mornings”. So lonely…

We’ve always tried to be friends with our neighbours.

Yes, indeed – and that’s what is so good about this flat.

The bathroom is shared among your neigh­bours with the other tenants.

Upstairs, downstairs, you know…

Shared??

What could be better? So friendly to see a smiling face in the morning, to hear a happy “good morning” , you feel is that you’re not alone in a group, a member of a happy family… I don’t think we could accept such a bargain, such an opportunity, jusi like winning the football pools.

Much too aristocratic for our economic problems, as you have so often reminded us today

Can we see the bedrooms7 Are there any bedrooms. Mr Quicksell?

Well. I’m sorry you feet like that about it.


I have done my best elim­den geleni yaptım to obey your instructions

talimatınıza uymak

leave the key anahtarı

bırakmak

deaf sağır

I’m not surprised şaşır­madım

rude kaba

I would rather tercih ediyorum

a well-decorated flat iyi

döşenmiş bir daire absolutely self-contained tam daire I realized anladım

as if I had stolen birşey çal­mışım gibi

I don’t know what to do ne

yapacağımı bilmiyorum

can we afford it? bütçemiz ona müsait mi1?

I have done my best.

I have tried to obey your instructions.

Well, if you could leave the key with the lady next door. Just walk in, she’s a little deaf, you know.

I’m not surprised.

She needs to be.

Oh! well!

What an awful flat.

What an awful man.

When I first saw him, I thought: not for us! I feel so rude about our “economic problems”.

I’m so tired – but – I would rather sleep in

the street.

He was so funny. “What a well-decorated

flat” — “absolutely self-contained” – “I nearly sold it yesterday”.

“As soon as I saw you I recognized this was the place for you”.

I just wanted to run away.

I don’t know, I’m sorry. Everything is so dif­ficult.

I asked at the bank for more money yester­day and they looked at me as if I had stolen

something.

Never mind.

! don’t know! I don’t know what to do. Never mind! I still love you. We will be O.K. Mmmm! Let’s have a cup of tea.

Can we afford it?…


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


& Umt8



 


 

 


 

 

my son Is HI oğlum hasta­landı

he’s the eldest büyük oğlan he’s only ten sadece on yaşında

what’s the matter with him? nesi var?

too many sweets gok fazla tatlı

the bed-covers örtüler

did he have a temperature?

afeşi varmıydı?

I took his temperature ate­şine baktım straight away derhal

Good morning, Mrs. Jenkins.

Good morning, Mr. Blake.

And how are you today?

I’m fine thank you but my son is ill.

Which one?

Tommy. He’s the eldest but he’s only ten and I’m worried.

What’s the matter with him?

When he came home from school yesterday he didn’t eat his tea.

Oh! yes? Perhaps he ate too many sweets at school.

No. He’s always hungry and he didn’t eat any sweets yesterday.

Was he sick?

No, he wasn’t sick but he went to bed early and when I looked in later, the bed-covers were all on the floor and he said he felt very hot.

Did he have a temperature?

Of course, I took his temperature straight away. It was thirty nine and a half degrees, centigrade, you know. That’s very high, isn’t it?

a normal temperature ateşi normal

adults yetişkinler there’s no need to worry

hiç kaygılanmanıza gerek yok

a fever ateş

the thermometer termometr the mercury cıva sütunu I banged it onu çarptım the bathroom sink lavabo

his stomach midesi has he seen a doctor? onu

doktora gösterdiniz mi?

I should call the doctor

doktor çağırmalıyım you certainly should elbette a rash on his skin deride kızarıklık


measles kızamık injections iğne chichen pox suçtçeğı

Yes, it is. A normal temperature is 36.5 to 37. Oh! dear.

Well, younger children only do have a higher temperature tnan adults. There’s no need to worry too much about a fever.

I gave him some lemon juice.

Mmm, that’s a good idea.

And half an aspirin.                                       (

Was his temperature higher or lower this morning?

Oh! I don’t know. That’s the awful thing. I shook it, the thermometer you know, to get the mercury down and I banged it on the bathroom sink. Of course it broke and now I have no thermometer to take his tempera­ture.

Well, never mind, we’ll easily get you another thermometer.

And when I looked in this morning he was all red!

His stomach, his neck, all red1 Has he seen a doctor?

Not yet.

Do you think I should call the doctor, Mr. Blake? You certainly should.

If a child has a rash on his skin you certainly should call a doctor

Oh! What do you think is the matter with him?

Measles?

He’s had all his injections.

German Measles? Chicken Pox? But he must see a doctor. These illnesses are easy to catch

Where are the younger children? Did you send them to your mother s?

No, they’re all gone to school

Oh’ dear1 Well, never mind, they’ve probably

already caught it

Oh1 no*



is there anything else? baş

ka bir isteğin var mı? cotton-wool hidrofil pamuk cream merhem vitamins vitaminler

it is more sensible daha

mantıklı

medicine ilaç

without a prescription re­çetesiz

much better to see the doc­tor first önce doktorla görüş­mek çok daha iyi olur

Right; is there anything else?

Well, I want some more cotton-wool, some more aspirins, perhaps some cream for his rash or vitamins?

No, Mrs. Jenkins. Don’t you think it is more sensible to see the doctor first? I can’t give you medicine without a prescription.

Not even aspirins?

Much better to see the doctor first, then he can put it all on the prescription and you don’t have to pay for it.

After all, with three children ill it’s a lot of money.

Three children ill?

I’m afraid so, they only do catch it if it’s Chicken Pox or German Measles.

Well, never mind, shops open till five o’clock, so come back later, all right?

Yes, thank you. I must go back home now. Oh1 How much is the thermometer Mr. Blake?

Oh never mind, you can pay me later when you come back for the other things.

Oh! Thank you very much.

You’re welcome. Good-bye, Mrs. Jenkins.


 


$


 

%ê/L

wh

s?

A

HAIRDRESSER’S SALON


 


 


I have an appointment with             ile randevum var

go and get ready gidip hazırlanın

to have your hair set saçını­zı yaptırmak

to have your hair cut saçını­zı kestirmek as well aynı zamanda I want a haircut saçımı kes­tirmek istiyorum I do not want a set saçımı yaptırmak istemiyorum come and get changed gelin ekserinizi değiştirin may I call you Jane? size Jane dıyebıiırmıyırn9

the same as usual her

zamanki gibi

a shorter style daha kısa bir biçim

makes you look younger

sizi genç gösterir

that doesn’t look so young

bu, o kadar genç göstermiyor

Good morning.

Good morning. I have an appointment for ten o’clock with Clive.

Your name, please?

I am Mrs. Williams.

Oh! yes. Please go and get ready. Clive will be with you in a minute.

Now, do you want to have your hair set or do you want to have your hair cut as well?

I want a haircut, please. I do not want a set. No set? No blow wave? Mmm, well.

Please come and get changed over here.

Heilo, Mrs. Williams May i call you Jane? Yes of course, Clive.

Just sit down here, please.

Thank you.

Now, how do you like your hair done?

The same as usual I suppose.

How about a shorter style, makes you look younger, you know.

Yes, but it shows more of your face, and that doesn’t look so young.


 


how are you then? nasıl­sınız?

an estate agent emlâkçı I’ll buy the drinks içkileri

ben ısmarlarım

me too ben de

cheer up! geçmiş olsun!

don’t look so sad o kadar üzme kendini

how long have you known him? ne kadar zamandır onu tanıyorsun? at college fakültede he studied Engineering mühendislik okudu what he’s doing now şimdi ne yaptığını


cheers, mate! sıhhatinize!

Well! John. Well! Anne. How are you then? Don’t ask!

Oh! dear. Have you quarrelled?

Not with each other

We went to an Estate Agent’s this morning. Oh! dear, money troubles. Well, I’ll buy the drinks later — What would you like now?

I want an orange juice, please.

Me too, please.

Cheer up! Don’t look so sad.

He’s nice, isn’t he? How long have you known him?

We met at college. He studied Engineering. I don’t know what he’s doing now.

Oh! Thanks Bob.

Cheers, mate!

Mmm, nice and cold.

So! what happened at the Estate Agent’s, this morning?

He was an awful man. Mr. Quarrel or some­thing.

Quicksell.

what does it matter ne öne­mi var?

as long as …diğimiz sürece we managed beceredik

generations kuşaklar an economically good po­sition paraca iyi bir durum for years to come ge­lecekteki yıllar için our financial situation mali durumuz

I was ashamed utandım

he’d caught a cold üşütmüş

to catch the bus otobüse yetişmek

…by name… by nature …is­men …doğuştan

dust toz

he didn’t even warn us bizi uyarmadı bile

the lavatory (=W.C.) tuvalet never mind zararı yok better luck next time bir

sonraki defa için iyi şanslar! I was thirsty susamıştım I stili am thirsty hâlâ susuz­luğum geçmedi you’ll have another won’t you? bir tane daha içersin, değil mı?

not fizzy gazlı olmasın

Have you got a job? ış bul­dun mu7

a deiivery boy dağıtıcı in fact gerçekten

Quicksell, Ricksell what does it matter as long as we managed to run away from him and his awful flat?

He thought I was a bank manager! He wanted to sell us a palace.

He had plans for generations of little Lords to keep him in “an economically good position” for years to come.

When he discovered that our “financial si­tuation” was not quite as he imagined.

I was so ashamed…

Yes, I wanted to hit him.

I wished I’d never been born.

He looked as if he’d caught a cold. He want­ed us to catch the next bus home.

Did you tell him to catch the next ship down the river? Quicksell by name and Quick sell by nature.

He took us to an awful flat; it was covered in dust; I don’t know how I survived.

He didn’t even warn us that it was about a thousand years old.

He did warn us that it was tn the ‘traditional” style. He thought a “friendly neighbour” meant we could hear the old man next door every time he went to the lavatory.

Oh! well, never mind. Better luck next time Ooooh! that was good. I was thirsty I still am thirsty.

Have another, will you?

I’ll get them Bob?

Euh! I’ll have an orange juice please, not fizzy.

Right

Well Bob how are things?

Well, not bad, you know.

Are you working? Have you got a job?

Just at the moment Actually I’m working in a grocer s a delivery boy, in fact
it’s better than nothing hiç

yoktan iyidir

it’s on me ben öderim

anyway, it’s our turn her- neyse, şimdi sıra bizde

It’s better than nothing.

Yeah!

Mmm! Shall we go out for some fish and chips?

Yes, if you like.

It’s on me, I’ll pay.

Don’t be silly; we’re not rich but we’re not in trouble for the next meal. Anyway, it’s our turn.

Come on then. Let’s go.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


UnitBf 9


ïigt

w

AN

ELECTRICIAN


 

 


at once hemen, derhal to deal with the emergency acit sorunu çözmek için you have to admit kabul etmelisiniz ki

let’s not get too anxious, shall we? çok fazla endişeli olmayalım, olmaz mı? calmly sakin bir şekilde what exactly is the prob­lem? sorun tam olarak nedir?

none at all hiç

for a whole week tam bir

haftadır

to get impatient sinirli olmak

an electrician elektrik te­sisatçısı

the cause of the failure ari- zanın nedeni to fix onarmak so that I can live yaşayabil­mem için

–     Good morning, madam. Mrs. Brown, isn’t it? — Yes,

–     As you can see I have come at once to deal with the emergency.

~ Come in. At once. You have to admit, it’s not “at once”. I have been telephoning you all week. Is that what you mean by “at once’ in an emergency??

–     Now, let’s not get too anxious, shall we? Try and look at life calmly.

Now, what exactly is the problem?

–     I have no electricity in the house’

None at all, for a whole week!!

–     Now, that’s no reason to get impatient, is it? People were living for centuries and centu­ries before electricity was invented, weren t they?

They were living happily, weren’t they? Think about it.

–    I was thinking about it all week and was liv­ing with the problem of not having any Which is why I called an electrician to dis­cover the cause of the failure arc f.x it So ‘that I can live an easy 20th certury life with


to calm down sakinleşmek let’s start at the beginning

baştan başlayalım

that is why bu yüzden

only in part of the house –

sadece evin bir bölümünde

to put the radio on radyoyu açmak

while I work çalışırken electricity; not for you to give me lessons in history, and philosophy.

Now, will you fix it!!

Now, calm down. Let’s start at the beginning. May I sit down?

Of course.

f

Please sit down.

Thank you. Well, just a little milk, please. What did you say?

In my tea. Just a little milk, please.

There is no tea, there is no sugar, there is no refrigerator for the milk, because there is no electricity. That’s why I was calling an elec­trician all this week. That is why you are here, isn’t it?

Now! Don’t be so nervous. We live in difficult

times.

What is the problem? Do you say you have

no electricity?

That’s right.

Oh! Fine. In the whole house? or only in part of the house?

Only in part of the house.

Ah! That makes the problem more difficult.

Oh?

Which part of the house has no electricity? The kitchen and the bathroom, where we need it most.

Oh, that does make it more difficult. Difficult for you or difficult for me?

For both of us, of course.

Is the electricity on in the living-room?

Yes

Then please put the radio on. because I like to listen to music while I work.

Is the electricity on in the kitchen?

Off

Bedrooms?

Off


I would do the same in your position sizin yerinizde olsaydım aynı şeyi yapardım

as they say dedikleri gibi

to sum up özetlemek

the wires kablolar

the rent kira

my payment depends on the work ücretim işe bağlıdır

what were you complain­ing about? neden şikayet ediyordunuz?

you must expect beklemeli­siniz

to go wrong bozulmak

Bathroom?

Off.

That’s a pity. You really do have a problem, don’t you? You were right to telephone. Were you telephoning all week?

Yes.

Yes, I would do the same in your position. Oh!!!

But, what were we talking about? Do you think I am a silly woman who is just trying to make trouble?

We were without electricity all week!

We were washing in the dark.

We were washing in cold water.

We were not able to cook.

Yes, yes, Mrs. Brown. Don’t worry. I am go­ing to fix everything now. “All’s well that ends well” as they say. That’s why I’m here for, anyway.

As you said, you came at once!!

Well now, to sum up: your name is Mrs. Brown, and you were living without electrici­ty for a week. Do you have an architect’s drawing of the electrical wires in the house? No, I do not! I do not have a drawing, I have no electricity and anyway this is not my house.

Oh! the house is rented?

Yes.

Is the rent expensive?

What do you mean by “expensive”? For a house with electricity it’s cheap. For a house without electricity…

Well, you see, my payment depends on the work and on the place I’m working in.

It’s cheap, very cheap! In fact it’s a bargain. Then what were you complaining about… In a cheap house you must expect everything to go wrong. First you rent a cheap house and then, when things go wrong, you come to us
the fuse box sigorta tablosu

the union sendika

I’M have to report it bildirme­liyim

I can’t stand it dayana­mıyorum

I don’t care about bana ne I only care about the fact

benim tek kaygım… olandır

I feel sorry for you sizin için üzülüyorum

cooperation işbirliği_____ to fix it.

But that’s your job!

Of course that’s my job. I can’t do my job with all this talking.

Can you show me the fuse box?

Of course, come this way.                          #

Oh dear, who did this then7 ■ I don’t know.

That’s what I was expecting. The man who did this wasn’t in the Union.

–   I told you, I donl know.

I’ll have to report it.

–   Oh! please, fix it first, and then report it. Please, I can’t stand it.

I told you, it’s not my house, I don’t care about the Unions, I only care about the fact that I have no electricity.

–   Please, Mrs. Brown. You must care about the Unions.

Oh well, I’ll fix it for you because I feel sorry for you.

–   Now, switch on please.

Now, you must stand here and you must tell me when there is a light and when there isn’t. All right?

–   Yes.

–   If I ask you, “is there a light’* and there is. you must answer “yes”. Understand?

–   Yes, I understand.

–   And if I ask you, “is there a light” and there isn’t, you must answer “no”. Understand?

–   Yes. I understand.

–   Fine, It is easy to work with you. Cooperation, eh?

–    Is there any light?

–   No!

Now?


nonsense saçma

thanks for the compliment

kompliman için teşekkürler

to hear the truth gerçeği öğrenmek I expect beklemek

the top tepe

a little shorter biraz daha kısa

I like it longer daha uzun

hoşuma gidiyor

let it stay longer daha uzun

kalsın

at the sides yanlarda

let’s see bakalım

to cut shorter daha kısa

kesmek

to grow longer uzatmak

how’s that? bu nasıl? it is much better like that

Öyle çok daha iyi do I look younger? daha genç görünüyormuyum? yes, I think I do evet, sanırım

I am older than you are

senden daha büyüğüm I’m the same age as you

sizinle aynı yaştayım

for ten years on yıldır

Nonsense. You don’t look more than twenty five and I know you have two children at

school.

Thanks for the compliment, but I come into the hairdresser’s to hear the truth. I expect the compliments when I go out, afterwards. A short cut is not so bad; shall I cut some of the top and leave it longer around the ears? Perhaps a little shorter. I like it longer round the ears, there, in front of the ears. Let it stay longer.

And, at the back, a square or a triangle?

A triangle, please. I want it longer in the middle and shorter at the sides.

Mmm, I think it’s better to keep it longer at the sides.

You know best. If you think that’s better, let’s see. After all it is easier to cut it shorter than grow it longer

How’s that Jar e? Do you like that?

Yes, you are right. It is much better like that. Yes, I like it like that!

Do I look younger? Yes, I think I do.

Of course I am older than you are…

Oh! no. I’m sure I’m the same age as you. I’ve been a hairdresser for ten years.

And I have been a mother for five years! That’s fine. Thank you very much.


 

 


how much do I owe you?

borcum ne kadar?

Now, how much do I owe you?

That’s £9 please.

Oh! yes. Here you are. And this is for Clive. Oh! Thank you.

Thank you! Good-bye.

Good-bye!


AT THE DENTIST’S



 

waiting room bekleme odasi — Yes? Come into the waiting room, please.

Please sit down. There are some magazines over there if you want them. Of course they are rather old. Some of them are older than

others…

Please wait a moment.

AaarghL

Who is next please?

Ladies first.

No, no it’s your turn. I see you are older than I. But I am not in so much of a hurry as you. But it’s not my turn.

Whose turn is it? Who was here first?

You came earlier than the others… Didn’t you?

But l‘m not in as much patn as this young

Sit in the chair, piease

Ah’ Good morning Mr. Smith1 And how are


you today9


stitch dikiş

Stitch in time saves nine

tam vaktinde görülen bir iş insanı çok zahmetten kurtarır a manner of speaking bir anlamda

what have we got here? bu

ne bu bakalım

loose gevşek to spit tükürmek

the bowl leğen

which tooth hurts more than the others? hangi diş en fena ağrıyor? they are all hurting as much as each other hepsi aynı derecede ağrıyorlar they all feel the same hepsi aynı hissediyorlar

closest to -a en yakın

to lose kaybetmek I don’t mind aldırmam

a nurse hemşire drill dışçı matkabı

It’s nothing really. Perhaps…

No, no, no!

… another day?

Now. “Stitch in time saves nine” Doesn’t dear? Just a manner of speaking.

Now, what have we got here? Ah’ yes!

This one is better than that one, but this one is worse than that one.

This one, this tooth is worse than that, but this one is looser than the next one. This one seems to have a hole in it. Spit.

Whaaat did you say7

Wash your mouth out and spit into the bowl.

Now, which tooth hurts more than the others?

Well, they are all hurting as much as each other now; now they all feel the same, but when I came in this morning, I…

Yes, there is a mark on this tooth. Are you having any pain?

It’s this one, isn’t it?

Yes, I ate a piece of meat yesterday and I broke my tooth on the bone…

Well… The sweetest meat is closest to the bone, isn’t it7 I suppose so.

Well, you don’t want to lose it, do you?

No1 I mean, I don’t mind. Take it away, I mean take it out

No, no, don’t worry we can save the tooth. Can’t we..

Nurse1 Drill1!

Aaaaargh.

Who is next please?

that’s strange tuhaf

there is nothing I can do

yapabileceğim bir şey yok I did what I could elimden gelem yaptım

what are we going to do?

ne yapalım?

keep calm sakın olun I have to have a rest dinlen­mem gerekiyor

No!

That’s strange. This has never happened to me before.

What is happening?

And now?

There’s still no light.

Well, now let’s see?

Oh my goodness! What’s happening?

Well, I’m afraid they’re all off now madam. There is nothing I can do. I did what I could. What are we going to do?

Nothing.

Nothing? But what am I going to do?

Well, we’ll have to start at the begjnning, whenever I’m free.

Whenever? At once! Now!

Keep calm, madam. It’s five o’clock now. It’s the week-end. I have to have a rest at the week-end. As you know, the Union says we cannot work at the week-end. I’m really sorry, I really am sorry.

Good-bye. Have a nice week-end.

Oh!!!!


##A #

\S


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


–     Hello?

–     Hello. It’s about your advertisement in the

newspaper.

–     Oh, yes?

–     My name is Mrs. Warren. I am interested in

the job.

–     Oh, good. Perhaps you can come to my house and we can talk about it.

–     The address?

–     Yes, it’s 17 Queen Victoria Street, that’s

near…

–     Yes, I know where it is.

–     Oh, we re on the third floor. Mrs, Owen.

–     I see. What time?

–     Well, can you come tomorrow morning at ten

o’clock?

rit see you then görüşürüz — Yes, all right. I’ll see you then. Good-bye.

–     Good-bye.

–     Good morning.

–     Good morning. Are you Mrs. Owen?

–     Yes.

–     I telephoned you yesterday. I was reading the


 

your advertisement for a cleaner temizlikçi için ilanınız

we have very little time to spend on cleaning temizlik için çok az vaktimiz var tidy düzenli

so-so şöyle böyle

waste boşa gidiyor that’s none of my business

beni ikilendirmez

up to a point bir noktaya

kadar

newspaper and I saw your advertisement for a cleaner.

Oh, yes. Mrs___ ?

Mrs. Lucy Elizabeth Diana Samantha Warren. You may call me Lucy when we know each other better.

Thank you. Come in.

Come in. Please sit down.

Now, what exactly was it you’re wanting, dear?

Weil, as I said in the advertisement, I want a cleaner.

Oh! Of course what you meant was, you wanted a lady to help you in the home? Yes, Mrs. Warren. You see, my husband and I, will be very busy. We have very little time to spend on cleaning the house. But, we want everything to look clean and tidy.

Does your husband help you in the home? No.

That’s a pity.

Well, that’s why we decided to have a home help.

Children?

Oh, no! well, at least not yet…

That’s good! Children are such a trouble! Yes, I suppose so.

How many rooms?

Three.

Large?

Well.,, so-so.

Mmm, two people in three rooms seems a bit of waste. Then that’s none of my business, well, up to a point.

Well, anyway, this is it. This is our home. Yes… well, it will be a nice house when it is clean.

But I told you our problem, we have so little time.


I don’t mean to be rude

kaba olmak istemiyorum

usually genel olarak

I’m a vegetarian vejeter- yantm

To help you put in order

düzenlemek için yardım etmek

what difference does that make? ne farkeder?

the Dart Ages Ortaçağ dan


I got a day off bir günlük izin aldtm

Oh no, Mrs. Owen. To be busV is one thing. To be clean and tidy is quite another. I don’t mean to be rude.

But why be rude, Lucy?

Mrs. Warren, for the moment, thank you. Who usually does the cooking?           ,

Oh! I cook in the evenings.

What do you usually eat?

Oh! different things.

Meat?

Oh yes!

I don’t eat meat myself; I am a vegetarian. I’ll make your menu.

I like vegetables, too. Fresh, green,…

Eh! don’t be silly dear.

Well, I’ve decided I will help you for the mo­ment. You’re young and you need someone to help you put this in order.

So you will come tomorrow, will you?

Don’t you work in the morning?

Yes, we do; but what difference does that make?

What difference!? Who will help me? Do you think I, that Mrs. Warren, can clean the place by herself?

I wanted a woman to clea’n while I am away, at work.

If you wanted a slave from the Dark Ages why didn’t you put that in the advertisement? No, please Mrs. Warren, please, sit down please.

What about the afternoons, after I’ve finished work?

Well, the afternoon is more expensive. Double. Why aren’t you at work today?

I got a day off

A day off!! When I was young, when I lived in the country. . People loved to work, people were proud to work. I don’t know what the world is coming to, if people don’t work.

I will be able to come (gel)e-

bilirim

not like that öyle değil the cloth bez

A day off!!

What about half past five tomorrow? Now. Well, I will be able to…

Yes. Perhaps…

No, no, no. Not like that.

How many more times do I have to tell you: move the cloth to the left and more quickly…


A NEW SECRETARY


 

–     Good morning, I’m Miss Miller; I have an ap­pointment with Mr. Greenwood.

–     Good morning, please sit down.

–    Thank you.

–     Mr. Greenwood, Miss Miller is here to see you.

–    Just a minute.

–     Just one moment, please.

–     Right, yes O.K.! O.K.! Good-bye.

you may send her in içeriye You may send Miss Miller in now, Mrs. gönderebilirsiniz              Jones

you may go in now girebilir* – Yes, Miss Miller, you may go in now. siniz şimdi         _ Thank you.

Good morning Mr. Greenwood. I am Miss Miller.

I hope you have not been – Ah’ Good morning, Miss Miller, I hope you

gok be9klemediniz9?               have not been waitin9 to° ,on9? Now’ Please

sit down.

–    Thank you.

–     Now, how long have you been working as a


a secretary sekreter

occasionally ara sıra I’ll need you to work çalış­manıza ihtiyacım olacak necessary gerekli

I may need to take you with

me sizi birlikte götürmem gerekebilir

conference konferans would you be able to arrange that? onu ayar- layabilirmiydiniz? how often will that be likely to happen? bu ne kadar zamanda bir oluyor9

it’s necessary that you

have olmanız gerekiyor a smart and attractive appearance şık ve hoş

görünüş

overtime mesai by the way, what is the sa­lary? söz açılmışken ücret ne kadar?

an advance payment ön

Ödeme

I’ve been looking for a new personal private secretary for quite some time ol­dukça uzun bir süredir yem bir özel sekreter arıyorum I wonder acaba I wonder if you could tell me söyleyebilirmısınız acaba secretary, Miss Miller?

Ten years, ever since I left the Secretarial College.

Good… Good. Now let me see…

I’ll occasionally need you to work late in the evenings, and perhaps will be necessary to work on the weekends.

Yes. That will be all right.

I may need to take you with me sometimes on a short trip, business meeting, weekend conference. Would you be able to arranqe that?

Of course; how often will that be likely to happen?

Oh, certainly not more than once a month. That will be all right then.

Good.

Now, of course it’s necessary that you have a smart and attractive appearance. You don’t need too much make-up but a little is a good idea. Your clothes need to be smart and clean. Of course I will pay you overtime for the work at the weekends. Thank you sir. By the way, what is the salary?

It’s about £ 600 a month. You’ll be paid at the end of the month; of course I will give you an advance payment for the first month, then you’ll be able to go out to buy some new clothes, you’ll look smart at the office.

Thank you, sir.

Now, may I ask you; how old are you Miss Miller?

I am twenty nine.

Mmmm, that’s fine. You know I’ve been looking for a new personal private secre­tary for quite some time.

Yes. I wonder if you could tell me more about the job?


job tamgtin — Yes, certainly. Well, it is a full-time job.

Usually 9 to 5 in the office though there may be some overtime. I want you to keep an appointments book for me to remind me of business meetings, but also I want you to remind me of personal matters. Oh! birthdays, wedding anniversaries, so on, and perhaps to send flowers or presents

i rı r-i onW


 

 

 


I will make a note of it onu

not ederim

she will give you the de­tails ayrıntıları size verecek she has been very helpful

çok yardımı dokundu references bonservisler a typist daktilo you can take dictation in shorthand steno biliyor­sunuz

I dictate my letters mektup­larımı yazdırıyorum I am used to using kullan­maya alışığım

to move house ev taşımak

I have been getting up at

Six saat altıda kalkıyorum the dawn is breaking şafak sökerken

the train fares tren bilet ücretleri

I expect he has been hav­ing difficulty zorluk çektiğim sanıyorum

Yes, sir. i win mant; & nuit: ui u.

Thank you. Euh! it’s April the…, the… Ah! Ah! Mrs. Jones will give you the details. Yes. Mrs. Jones has been very helpful. Now, I see from your references that you’re a fast typist and that you can take dictation in shorthand. I sometimes dictate my let­ters in the car, on the way home; I have a cassette recorder, would you be…?

Oh yes sir, that will be no problem. I am used to using a cassette for correspon­dence.

Mmm, good. Now, could you tell me why you left your last job?

Yes, certainly. I had to move house. I want to live nearer to my mother, who is rather old and needs my help. I found that from my new house, it was too far to travel to the office. I have been getting up at six in the morning, just as the dawn is breaking; also the train fares were very expensive. Mmm, yes, I understand. Well Mr. Smith has certainly given you a very good refer­ence. I expect he has been having diffi­culty finding a new secretary Yes, I was very sorry to leave him Well, I’ve been having trouble too, looking for a new secretary, l*ve been looking for one for three weeks But you seem quite
you seem quite suitable

pek çok uygun görünüyor­sunuz

I look forward to working with you sizinle çaltşmay dörtgözle bekliyorum suitable. I look forward to working with you.

Mrs. Jones will help you at first, she is a good typist. She’ll help you.

Yes, thank you sir.

Will you be able to start on Monday?

Yes, Mr. Greenwood; Thank you.

Good.                                                                 s


Ǥ#A

W*

A DRESSMAKER

–     Come in.

–     I want to speak to Mrs. Paddington, please.

–     I am Mrs. Paddington.

–    Oh! I am Mrs. Jones; Mrs. Jean Baker re- to recommend salık vermek commended me.

~ Oh!… Sit down. Who did you say? Mrs. Baker sent you?

–     Yes. Mrs. Baker; she said she was of your best customers.

–     Oh! and perhaps she has given you the

to owe borcu olmak                         £ 16 she has owed me for a year? She has

fnr6 rb»eKbt t0iHme been in debt to me over a year, for a dress tor over a year bir yıldan    J

fazladır bana borcu var                 I made for her on credit.

she didn’t mention that ~ Oh! No. She didn’t mention that. She didn’t

HwöuWZno» bright doğru say any*hin9 about money… Well, perhaps

olmasaydı                                         she thought it would not be right to give

me the money.

–     Not right for her, or, not right for me?

–     For you of course.

it is not wrong tor me to be — It is not wrong for me to be paid the mo-

ton! ödenmesinde bSik She is ,he Person whos in debt 1 am

yok                                      not.

!t* would d|»*wrong dSfru —   Wel1, Perhaps she thought it would be

olmazdı                                           wrong to ask me to bring it.

umtm*


 

 

the scissors makas

sharp keskin

she may have forgotten

unutmuş olabilir

well anyway, it’s none of my business herneyse, bem ilgilendirmez politely daha nazik

so far şu ana kadar

a dressmaker kadın terzisi

anything you make is a

work of art her yaptıklarınız

heJitai eSe.iüt:

the sewing-machine dikiş makinesi cutting kesme needles ığneier stitches dikiş

if a job’s worth doing, it’s worth doing well bir ıs yapıl­maya değerse, iyi yapılmaya değer demektir

you are bound tö .friU?afca

(çıkacaksın)

Isn’t Mrs. Baker a friend of yours?

Well, yes… I suppose a friend of a friend. Oh… I see…

The scissors are not sharp.

She may have forgotten about the money. No, madam, she has not forgotten about the money. Perhaps she hopes 1 have for­gotten.                              ,

Well anyway, it’s none of my business, and I want you to speak more politely about my friend.

Your friend’s friend.

Yes, please don’t be so rude.

So rude!!! I have not been rude at all, yet. I have been very polite, so far.

Anyway, Mrs. Baker gave me your address; she said that you have been working as a dressmaker for years, and that you’re the best in London.

Well, that’s true. I have been working for years, and I am the best in Britain.

She also said that anything you make is a work of art.

Weil, that’s true too.

She said that “Mrs. Paddington is a true artist, the Leonardo da Vinci of the sewing- machiner.

Well, my cutting is the straightest, my needles are the sharpest, and my stitches are the smallest. If a job’s worth doing, it’s worth doing well.

Well, what else did she say9 She said, “You go to Mrs Paddington and you are bound to come out looking like a queen1‘.

Mmm, did she say all that9 She told you so much about me and she didn’t say any- ♦k.«« ahnut mv c 16 hut-I am. qoina to get


don’t get angry at me bana kızmayın

to arrange ayarlamak

I will not be satisfied until

…oluncaya kadar tatmin olmayacağım

I’ve a bright idea parlak bir

fikrim var

I am never angry htç bir

Zctm&n kızmam I am not wasting any more time daha başka vakit harca­mıyorum

I want you to make a dress

for me benim için bir elbise yapmanızı istiyorum something special özet bir

şey

original ozgun unusual alışılmamış

dreadfully korkunç bir şekilde

like you sızır» gibi

material bez

it won’t stretch genişlemez

Please don’t get angry at me. If it’s neces­sary I will give you the £16 and arrange it with her later. That’s no problem.

Are you so rich?

What did you say?

There’s no doubt about it, you must be rich, you will bring me my £16. I will not be satisfied until I get my £16.

Please, calm down; I’ve a bright idea, this is what well do. But calm down.

I AM CALM1 I am never angry. I have so much work to do, and / am not wasting any more time with Mrs. Baker’s £16. My £16. Would you like some coffee?

No. No thank you. I will be satisfied if you agree to be my dressmaker and if you will listen to me.

I am listening. What do you want?

I want you to make a dress for me. Some­thing special, something better than I can find in the boutiques. Something original, unusual.

Do not speak to me about boutiques. When I am Prime Minister, I’ll close them all. They take away our customers and they dress people dreadfully, like you!!

Don’t you like my dress?

Did you ma.ke it?

No, I bought it.

Yes. I can see that. Well, what material have you brought me?

Here it is. I bought it from Harrod’s. Do

you know it?

Of course I know Harrod’s. I have been buying their material there for years… Yes it’s a good material, it won’t stretch, and it won’t become shiny.

What is this mark on the edge?

That is the wool mark, it shows that it is pure wool


let’s spread it out onu

serelim

good quality iyi kalite

the fashion magazines

moda dergileri

Oh! Is that good?

Yes of course. I thought you were good at buying material, it seems that you are just lucky. Let’s spread it out on the table.

There you are, it’s good quality material, isn’t it?

Mmm… I have an idea. Come and s^e the fashion magazines and we will talk about it.

Yes. O.K.


-ijQQk-—-jJTi u 6 r txi 6 Vulc&iiO _.

Have you read it?

Yes, I have, and ! admire Albert Finney as an actor

Let s go and see it this week.

Which theatre are we going to tonight? “Star­light Express”? “The Real Thing” at the Strand9

Tag questions
Miss Staley is a teacher, isn’t she? Yes, she is.
You are Kathy, aren’t you? Yes, I am.
They are students, aren’t they? Yes, they are.
This is your dog, isn’t it? Yes, it is.
These are your books, aren’t they? Yes, they are.
I am your friend, aren’t I? Yes, you are.
We are your pupils, aren’t we? Yes, you are.
He is Mr. Smith, isn’t he? Yes, he is.
This is the doctor, isn’t it? Yes, it is.
It’s very cloudy; it’s going to rain, isn’it? Yes, it is.
You have a cabin-cruiser, haven’t you? Yes, I have.
I have a spot on my nose, haven’t I? Yes, you have.
Paddy has a sling-shot, hasn’t he? Yes, he has.
This book has a torn page, hasn’t it? Yes, it has.
She has a younger brother, hasn’t she? Yes, she has.
They have a house in the country, haven’t they? Yes, they have.

 

You can drive a car, can’t you?

She can fly an aeroplane, can’t she?

That snake can bite, can’t it?

We could visit the Zoo, couldn’t we?

I can play good tennis, can’t I?

He can swim across the lake, can’t he?

The children must go to bed, mustn’t they? He must hurr^ mustn’t he^

She must cook dinner, mustn’t she?

They must take their umbrellas, mustn’t they?

You must go to the dentist, mustn’t you?

I must visit grandfather, mustn’t I?

The dog must eat, mustn’t it?

Yes, I can.

Yes, she can.

Yes, it can.

Yes, you could; it was open.

Yes, you can.

Yes, he can.

Yes, they must.

Voe ha mi scvfr Uo mn

I vw, l IV» IIIUQl.l IC IIIU

catch the train.

Yes, she must; it’s late.

Yes, they must; it’s raining.

Yes, I must;

I’ve got a bad tooth. Yes, you must because he’s ill.

Yes, it must.

It’s hungry.

irt*vsri ‘                                         tidrY <**»*.

He lives next door, doesn’t he?       Yes, he does.

I get good marks, don’t I?            Yes, you do.

Kathy loves dolls, doesn’t she?       Yes, she does.

They work in London don’t they?       Yes, they do.

It catches mice, doesn’t it?                                               Yes, it does.

We’re studying, aren’t we?            Yes, you are.

They’re swimming, aren’t they?        Yes they are.

He’s throwing stones, isn’t he?                                        Yes, he is.

She’s serving breakfast, isn’t she?   Yes, she is.

She has finished school, hasn’t she?       Yes, she has.

I’ve done well, haven’t I?            Yes, you have.

She’s done badly, hasn’t she?         Yes, she has. They’ve always come to our parties, haven’t they? Yes, they have.

You’ve always liked oranges, haven’t you? Yes, I have.

He’ll come late, won’t he?            Yes, he will.

She’ll go to the hairdresser’s won’t she? Yes, she will.

They’ll beat the Wolves, won’t they?  Yes, they will.

We’ll go to London, shan’t we?        Yes, we shall.

You’ll learn French, won’t you?       Yes, I shall.

He married Helen, didn’t he?          Yes, he did.

Miss Staley taught geography yesterday,

didn’t she?                           Yes, she did.

I went to visit grandfather this morning, didn’t I? Yes, you did.

They bought a cabin-cruiser, didn’t they? Yes, they did.

You broke the window, didn’t you?      Yes, I did.

Shakespeare wrote plays, didn’t he?    Yes, he did.

We went to school at 8 o’clock, didn’t we?     Yes, you did.

Sir Francis Drake sailed round the world,

didn’t he?                             Yes, he did.

Elizabeth loved her country, didn’t she?  Yes, she did.

Nelson won the sea-battle of Trafalgar, didn’t he? Yes, he did.

Stephenson invented the first steam-engine

didn’t he?                             Yes, he did.

—  You’ve got a cold, haven’t you Paddy?

—  Yes, I have.

I caught a cold last night.

—  Were you out last night?

—  Yes, I went to the theatre,

but when I wanted to go home I couldn’t find a taxi.

—  So you walked out in the cold, didn’t you?

—  That’s right. You stayed home, didn’t you Michael?

—  Yes I did. I watched T.V.

—   So you’ve seen the game

between Leeds and the Wolves, haven’t you?

—  Yes, I have.

—  You lucky boy! You are lucky, aren’t you?

—   Perhaps I am but I didn’t go to the theatre!

—   You’ll study now, won’t you Paddy?

—   Yes, I will, but not right now.

—   Oh, I know; You’re chasing cats again, aren’t you?

_ Yes, I am, though I haven’t caught any yet.

—  You’ve had lunch, haven’t you?

—  Yes, I have.

—  You’ve played with your friends, haven’t you?

—  Yes, I have.

—  Daddy has given you some sweets, hasn’t he?

—  Yes, he has.

—  You’ve been out in the garden for an hour, haven’t you?

—  Yes, I have. So what?

—  Now come in and study! That’s what!

—  We must go to the hairdresser’s, mustn’t we?

—  Yes, I think we must.

—  And then we shall go to the cinema, shan’t we?

—  Yes, we shall.

—  And then we could have tea, couldn’t we?

—  Yes, we could. By the way, what time is it?

—  Oh, it’s half past eleven. It’s late, isn’t it?

—   I’m afraid it is. Mustn’t we cook?

—  I’m afraid we must.

How about going tp the hairdresser’s?

—  Well, let’s cook first and then we’ll see.

  1. TAG QUESTIONS when we expect an affirmative answer “DEĞİL Mİ?” SORULARI

olumlu ve onaylaytcı bir yanıt beklediğimiz zaman


 

TAG QUESTION interrogative – negative

ANSWER

yes + affirmation


B. TAG QUESTIONS when we expected a negative answer “DEĞİL Mİ?” SORULARI olumsuz yanıt beklediğimiz zaman

TAG QUESTION interrogative

A başlığının örnekleri 104, 105, 106. sayfalarda bulunuyor B başlığı için şu koşullar perçekleşmelidir:

a)    temel cümle olumsuzdur.

b)    “değil mi” sorusu olumlu biçimde sorulur.

c)     aldığımız yanıt, bildiğimiz olumsuzluğun onaylanmasıdır.

ÖRNEKLER

Miss Staley isn’t a doctor, is she?                                   No,

You aren’t French, are you?                                         No,

You haven’t a cabin-cruiser, have you?                      No,

They haven’t got a car, have they?                                 No,

It’s not raining, is it?                                                       No,

You can’t fly an aeroplane, can you?                           No,

They couldn’t come to the party, could they?          No,

He mustn’t smoke too much, must he?                    No,

We mustn’t eat too much, must we?                         No,

We haven’t fed the dog, have we?                             No,

They haven’t studied Geography, have they?          No,

He didn’t go fishing, did he?                                      No,

I didn’t take youi” cigarettes, did I?                           No,

We don’t smoke, do we?                                             No,

He doesn’t talk in his sleep, does he?                       No,

She wasn’t at the theatre, was she?                          No,

Michael is in Scotland. He has visited Scotland with a few of his classmates and Miss Staley during the holidays.

This is Michael’s letter to his parents.

Hotel fvanhoe 126, Aberdeen Road Edinburgh 15.

12th April, 1977

Dear Mum, Dad, and Kathy.

This is our third day in Edinburgh. As / wrote to you yesterday it is a fantastic city with wonderful thoroughfares and beautiful monuments.

Our first two days were very busy as Miss Staley was trying to teach us as much of the history of Scotland as she could. We were lucky indeed because the weather was beautiful and we never got tired of walking. As we went from one place to another, we enjoyed the sunshine and the sight of very beautiful buildings.

I must say Edinburgh is almost as beautiful as London. Unfortunately to-day we were not as lucky as the two other days.

The weather changed and we had to walk in heavy rains and we spent most of the day in the hotel. But Miss Staley lost no time. At the hotel she told us all about Mary Queen of Scots and Bonnie Prince Charlie. She also told us about Sir Walter Scott and the poet Burns. We even had to listen to some poetry by Burns.lt was a rather dull day 6ecause we had to stay in most of the time and what more, listen to literature!

If the weather is good to-morrow we shall visit the shipyards at the Clyde. Miss Staley told us that those shipyards launched the Queen Mary, the Queen Elizabeth and the QE2. If we are lucky perhaps we shall see the launching of some ship, but that will probably only be a dream. After our visit to the Clyde I shall write again. I shall close this letter now as we have to go to bed.

Love and best wishes, Michael

P.S. I hope the weather is good to-morrow.

WORDS – NAMES


spot, benek, ufak leke

tear, yırtmak

dentist, diş doktoru

invent, icat etmek,

steam engine, buharlı makine

game, oyun

cigarettes, sigara

Easter, Paskalya

letter, mektup

fantastic, harikulâde

thoroughfare, Şehrin ana caddesi

to get tired, yorulmak, yorgun düşmek

sunshine, güneşli hava

unfortunately, ne yazık ki

dull, sıkıcı

shipyards, tersane

to launch, gemiyi denize indirmek

launching, denize indirme

dream, rüya

Sir Francis Drake, 16. yüzyılda yaşamış ünlü bir denizci Mary Queen of Scots, İskoçya Kraliçesi Mary Stuart. Tahtından indirildikten sonra İngiltere’de yaşadı. Kraliçe Elizabeth’e karşı bir komploya karıştığı iddiasıyla kafası kesilerek idam edildi.

Bonnie Prince Charlie, Iskoçya’nın ühlü ve sevilen Prensi Sir Walter Scott, Romancı ve şair. Ivanhoe’nın yazarı Robert Burns, İskoçya’nın büyük lirik şairi The Clyde, İskoçya’da büyük bir nehir

IDIOMS

so what? ne farkeder, ne olacak yani?

” that’s what, bundan, bu nedenle

what’s more daha ne olacak, en kötüsü

PRINCIPAL PARTS- IRREGULAR VERBS

tear – tore – torn drive – drove – driven


The past continuous tense


 

I was playing You were playing He was playing She was playing It was playing We were playing You were playing They were playing

Paddy was washing,

when his mother called him.

I was walking to school

when two cars collided.

She was playing the piano

at 6 o’clock.

I was fishing

this morning.

She was sleeping,

when the phone rang.

You were driving a car

when I saw you.

They were watching T.V.

at 8 o’clock.

We were playing tennis

yesterday afternoon.

 

 

PADDY’S MOTHER: PADDY:

MRS. SMITH: MICHAEL:

PHIL:

KATHY AND MICHAEL:

MRS. HEATH: KATHY:

Come downstairs!

I’m washing.

(Paddy was washing when his mother called him.)

Where are you going?

I’m walking to school; good heavens!Those two cars have collided.

(Michael was walking to school when two cars collided.)

What are you doing?

We are playing tennis.

(Kathy and Michael were playing tennis when Phi! saw them yesterday afternoon.)

It’s six o’clock; what are you doing?

I’m playing the piano.

(What was Kathy doing at 6 o’clock?

She was playing the piano at 6 o’clock.)

PADDY: What were you doing this morning?
MICHAEL: I was fishing.
(Michael was fishing this morning.)
SUSAN: Didn’t you hear the phone? I rang you
yesterday evening at 10 o’clock.
KATHY: No, because I was sleeping.
(Kathy was sleeping when the phone rang.) :
Haven’t you got an umbrella? It’s raining.
— Of course I have an umbrella,


but it wasn’t raining an hour ago when I went out.

—   Didn’t you hear the weather forecast on the radio?

—   No, I didn’t.

I wasn’t listening to the radio when I was at home.

—  What are you doing?

—  Can’t you see? I’m climbing the tree.

—  Well, be careful.

I was climbing the tree in my garden yesterday, a branch broke and I fell down.

—  Aren’t you coming with us? We’re going fishing.

—   No, thank you. I was fishing yesterday and to-day I’m staying at home to study.

—  Well, We were studying yesterday when you were fishing.

—  Weren’t you sleeping at midnight last night?

I saw lights in your house.

—  No, we weren’t sleeping; we were having a party.

What were you doing out in the street at midnight?

—  Oh, I was going back home from a different party.

—   I saw the Smiths in London yesterday.

What were they doing?

—  6h, they were shopping.

Mrs. Smith bought curtains and two hats.

What were you doing in London?

—  I was spending the day there with my elder sister.

—  What was your elder sister doing there?

—  Oh, she lives in London.


Michael and Kathy spent their Sunday at Regent’s Park. It was a lovely sunny day with few clouds in the sky. Thistimetheydid not go to the Zoo; they only walked around the park, stopped and played here and there and took photographs of the ponds and the ducks and geese in them. They especially liked the ponds. There were ducks and geese swimming in them, children were sailing their toy boats and people were feeding the fish and the birds of the ponds.

Everything looked gay. Even the birds that were flying above their heads were chirping all the time. This was a child’s paradise. There were children everywhere. Some were flying kites, others were playing on the green grass and every child was shouting and laughing with joy.

Children and their parents were not the only visitors in the park. There were also a lot of old people, who looked like grandfathers and grandmothers. Some of them were walking slowly with the help of a stick, others were sitting on the park benches and were smiling to the children that were running all around.

In some cases there were old people who were reading a newspaper in the sunshine. How happy everybody looked. Everyone was smiling, everyone was pleased’ The only sad moment was when Michael aTtcf Kalhywere walking to me exit of the park late in the afternoon. The sun was going down and everybody was going home. Everybody had to go home.

That was one of the children’s most pleasant Sundays.

DIALOGUE

— Vv ntif ts s

—   No, i’m afraid not. She had to stay at home.

—  Why Hid ohs have to do that?

—  Well, mother is ill to-day

and somebody has to stay home to help.

—   I see. i’m suffy to hear that.

What’s the matter with your mother?

—   She had to do the pruning in the garden yesterday and she caught cold.

—   Did you have to put that funny drjess on?

We’re only going to the cinema, you know!

—  What’s wrong with my dress?

Why do you have to make fun of my dresses all the time?

—   Simply because they are funny.

That’s all. They don’t even look like dresses.

They look like my grandma’s night-gown.

—   Do you have to shave Paddy?

—  Well, daddy shaves, doesn’t he?

—  Yes, but your daddy has a beard, hasn’t he? You’ve got nothing to shave.

Why do you have to shave then?

—   Well, I’ll have a beard some day, shan’t I?

How shall I know how to shave if I don’t learn?

 

ïSH

p., ****££$

 

WORDS


 

to collide, çarpışmak, çarpmak photographs, fotoğraflar, pond, havuz,

geese, kazlar (tekili = goose) gay, neşeli, uçarı to chirp, cıvıldamak paradise, cennet,

stick, baston exit, çıkış

to prune, budamak simply, basitçe grandma, nine, beard, saka!


while


+ past continuous

  1. 1.  While he was playing basket-ball he fell down and broke his leg.
  2. 2.  While he was on the grass a bee stung him.
  3. 3.  While they were listening to Miss Staley, Mr. Long came into the classroom.
  4. 4.  While she was cooking dinner Mrs. Smith called her up.
    1. 5.  While the children were studying Tom was sleeping near the fireplace.
    2. 6.  While Mr. Heath was painting -the house Mrs. Heath was pruning the garden.
    3. 7.  While I was walking in the wood I saw a snake.
    4. 8.  As he was climbing the tree he fell down.
    5. 9.  As she was cutting the meat she cut herself.

10.As he was eating his soup a fly sat on his nose.

  1. 11.  As they were going to school they saw a house on fire.
  2. 12.  As I was getting on the bus my friend Tom was getting off.

Poem There was a naughty Boy,

And a naughty Boy was he,

He ran away to Scotland The people for to see —

Then he found

That the ground Was as hard, That a yard,

Was as long,

SOily

Was as merry That a cherry as red —


 

 

 

 

uee, an                  t,

stung. boceK sokiu                           firs, atcç

sting, böcek sokması                       merry, neşeli

«vuuü, umluıı                                      to                                      hayrnl nlmok

while ) > + past continuous as i

  1. 1.  While he was playing basket-ball he fell down and broke his leg.
  2. 2.  While he was on the grass a bee stung him.
  3. 3.  While they were listening to Miss Staley, Mr. Long came into the classroom.
  4. 4.  While she was cooking dinner Mrs. Smith called her up.
  5. 5.  While the children were studying Tom was sleeping near the fireplace.
  6. 6.  While Mr. Heath was painting -the house Mrs. Heath was pruning the garden.
  7. 7.  While I was walking in the wood I saw a snake.
  8. 8.  As he was climbing the tree he fell down.
  9. 9.  As she was cutting the meat she cut herself.
  10. 10.  As he was eating his soup a fly sat on his nose.
  11. 11.  As they were going to school they saw a house on fire.
  12. 12.  As I was getting on the bus my friend Tom was getting off.

Poem There was a naughty Boy,

And a naughty Boy was he,

He ran away to Scotland The people for to see —

Then he found That the ground Was as hard,

That a yard,

Was as long,

/ “Si €§

Was as merry

IA/flc ae raW —

 

 

WORDS

bee, arı

stung, böcek soktu sting, böcek sokması wood, orman

fly, sinek fire, ateş merry, neşeli

to wonder, şaşmak, hayret etmek

so – neither

He is a doctor and so is his brother.

I have a car and so has my father.

She has a doll and so has her sister.

We can swim and so can they.

I must study and so must you.

They learn French and so do we.

We went to London and so did they.

I have seen an elephant and so has my sister.

He will come here to-morrow and so will his friend. She was playing tennis yesterday afternoon and so was her brother.

 

I am an Englishman.

My father has a shop.

I can fly an aeroplane.

We must go home now.

She has to study.

Michael fishes.

Mrs. Heath went to London.

They have bought a car.

We were playing yesterday afternoon.

So am I.

So has mine.

So can my friend. So must we.

So do we.

So does Phil.

So did Mrs. Smith. So have we.

So were we.

 

She’s not at home.

They haven’t a dog.

I can’t go to the party.

We mustn’t go out.

Paddy doesn’t eat soup.

Mrs. Smith didn’t go to the cinema. I haven’t seen Helen.

They weren’t sleeping at midnight.

Neither is her brother. Neither have we. Neither can I.

Neither must I.

Neither does Susan. Neither did Mrs. Jones. Neither have I.

Neither was John.

Adverbs

  1. Adjective + ly = ADVERB
  2. 1.  This is a slow train. That old woman is walking slowly.
  3. 2.   Michael had a quick bath and he quickly went downstairs to have breakfast.
  4. 3.  She is sad because she has lost her dog. That’s why she looks at us sadly.
  5. 4.  She’s happy because she’s going to get married. She will live happily now.
  6. 5.  This is a real diamond. Do you really believe it?
  7. 6.   He is a careful driver. He drives very carefully.
  8. 7.  This exercise is easy to do; I’ve done it easily.
  9. 8.  This is a bad boy; he always behaves badly.

slow – slowly                    real – really

quick – quickly                 careful – carefully

sad > sadly                       easy – easily

happy – happily               bad – badly.

good sıfatının zarfı = well

B.FREQUENCY ADVERBS

Always – never – ever – often – seldom – sometimes – rarely – frequently.

Süreklilik zarfları (frequency adverbs), to be fiili hariç, her zaman ana fiilden önce kullanılırlar. To be fiilinin ise sonrasında kullanılırlar. Yardımcı fiille kurulan zamanlarda, süreklilik zarfları, yardımcı fiilden sonra ve ana fiilden önce gelirler.

He always gets up early and never goes to school late.

She rarely eats soup but she often eats sweets.

He frequently goes to football matches but he seldom goes to the cinema.

She is always at home in the evenings. She is never out.

He’s rarely there on Sundays; he’s always in the country.

Does he ever go to Cambridge?

I have frequently visited London, but I have seldom visited Edinburgh.

Wishes – Greetings

  1. Good morning.
  2. I wish you a happy New Year.
  3. Have a nice time. Enjoy yourself. Have a nice journey.
  4. Happy birthday. Many happy returns of the day.
  5. Congratulations. Congratulations on your success. Congratulations on your victory.
  6. Good luck. I wish you the best of luck.
  7. Thank you. Thanks. Thank you so much. Thank you ever so much.
  8. Welcome. Welcome home. Welcome to our city.
  9. You’re very kind. It’s kind of you. It’s most kind of you.

It’s awfully kind of you.

10.Please don’t go into all that trouble. I don’t want to give you any trouble.

Good morning;

happy New Year………………………… Good morning; thank you and

the same to you.

 

I’m going to Brighton for the week-end

We are going to a party………………..

I’m leaving for Paris by train….

I’m flying to New York I’m sailing to Dover

i’m 10 years old to-day

I’m getting married……………………….

I’ve passed my examinations. ..

Have a nice time!

Enjoy yourselves!

Have a nice journey!

Have a nice flight!

Have a nice voyage!

Happy birthday. Many happy returns of the day. Congratulations. Congratulations on your success.

 

We’ve beaten Chelsea 5 to nothing

Congratulations on your victory.

İngilizce Ögrenme Kılavuzu

She washes up at 8 a.m. every day.

Miss Staley is teaching geography.

She knows geography very well.

They are playing tennis.

They play tennis every afternoon.

Mrs. Heath is going to the market.

She usually goes to the market at 10 a.m. every morning.

Michael is going fishing.

He goes fishing on Saturday afternoons.

Paddy is throwing stones.

He usually throws stones,

but sometimes he plays with marbles.

We are going to school.

We go to school every day.

A stork is standing on the chimney.

It likes to stand on chimneys.

Miss Staley is talking to Paddy.

She knows Paddy.

She washes up at 8 a.m. every day.

Miss Staley is teaching geography.

She knows geography very well.

They are playing tennis.

They play tennis every afternoon.

Mrs. Heath is going to the market.

She usually goes to the market at 10 a.m. every morning.

Michael is going fishing.

He goes fishing on Saturday afternoons.

Paddy is throwing stones.

He usually throws stones,

but sometimes he plays with marbles.

We are going to school.

We go to school every day.

A stork is standing on the chimney.

It likes to stand on chimneys.

Miss Staley is talking to Paddy.

She knows Paddy.

 

Negative questions

Does Mrs. Heath wash up? Yes, she does. She always washes up after meals. Doesn’t Mr. Heath wash up? No, he doesn’t.

Is Paddy throwing stones?

Yes, he is. He usually throws stones.

Doesn’t he go fishing?

No, he doesn’t.

Are you learning the Present Tense?

Yes, we are.

Aren’t you students?

Yes, we are.

Must children sleep late?

No, they mustn’t.

Mustn’t they study?

Yes, they must.

Is Miss Staley teaching geography?

Yes, she is.

Isn’t she showing the map? Yes, she is.

Can Michael drive a car?

No, he can’t.

Can’t he ride a bicycle?

Yes, he can.

Do you understand                         f

the Present Tense now?

Yes, we do.

Don’t you use it?

Yes, we do.

Are you going to play tennis? Yes, I am.

Aren’t you going to play with me?

Yes, I am.

Can I play, mummy?

No, you can’t.

Aren’t I a good boy?

Yes, you are, but you mustn’t play now.

 

I?

you?

he?

she?

it?

we9

( he?

Isn’t

 

 

 

 

 

 

olALOGU E

mary:     isn’t it Saturday to-day?

KATHY.        Yes, it is.

mary:            Aren’t you playing tennis now?

kathy:           No, I’m not. I’m looking at the tennis match.

mary:            Haven’t you got a tennis racket?

kathy:           Yes, I have; here it is.

mary.            Then why don’t you play?

kathy:           Because I haven’t got any tennis shoes.

mary:            I can play tennis. Do you want to play with me?

KATHY:        NO, I don’t.

mary:            Why? Aren’t I good enough?

kathy:           Perhaps you are good enough but I haven’t got my tennis shoes.

mary:            Can’t you play without your tennis shoes?

kathy:           Perhaps I can, but I can’t play well enough.

mary:            Then let’s play marbles. Don’t you play marbles?

kathy:           Yes, sometimes I do, but I haven’t got any marbles.

mary.            Hasn’t anybody here got any marbles?

kathy:           No, nobody has. They’ve all got tennis balls and rackets.

mary:            Then mustn’t we do something? I don’t like to sit here and only look at the tennis match.

kathy:           Yes, I agree. We can walk. Oh, look! My brother is going to play now. Doesn’t he play well?

mary.           Yes, he does. Let’s walk then.

 

DIALOGUE

Can you see that boy over there? Do you know him?

Oh, yes. He’s Phil; he’s my classmate. Don’t you know him?

No, I’m afraid I don’t. Hasn’t he got a fishing-rod? No, he always fishes without a fishing-rod. He only uses a line.

Don’t you fish with him?

No,I don’t. He’s a noisy boy and he talks all the time. Can’t you fish and talk?

No, because the fish go away and I can’t catch them.

Then mustn’t we be quiet, if you want to fish now?

I think we must.

Good morning, Mrs. Heath. Aren’t you late at the market to-day?

Yes, I’m afraid I am a little late. My watch is slow and I don’t know the right time.

Haven’t you got a clock at home? I always look at my clock. Clocks are seldom wrong.

Oh, yes, we’ve got a clock. But don’t clocks stop sometimes?

Yes, they do. Mine is even out of order.

Then don’t you know what time it is?

Oh, I know what time it is by my watch. It’s slow like yours. That’s why I’m late too.

 

QUESTION AND ANSWER

 

 

 

Doesn’t the river Thames flow round London?

No, it doesn’t. It flows through London.

Hasn’t Michael got a fishing-rod?

Yes, he has.

Don’t the Heaths go to the country on week-ends?

Yes, they sometimes do on week-ends.

Can’t Kathy drive a car?

No, she can’t.

Doesn’t it rain very much in England?

Yes, it does.

Aren’t ducks pets?

Sometimes they are.

Haven’t the Heaths got a private aeroplane?

No, they haven’t. They’ve only got a cabin-cruiser.

Mustn’t yOU put your COat On?                                       __ _____ Arent I lazy?

Yes, I think I must; it’s cold.                                      f A

i|

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WORDS – IDIOMS

 

 

 

student, öğrenci to show, göstermek match , mag to agree, anlaşmak over there, orada ^to be afraid, korkmak line, misina (metindeki anlam) all the time, sürekli the right time, doğru zaman out of order, bozuk by my watch, saatimle to flow, akmak (nehir için) through, aracılığı ile, vasıtasıyla private, özel to put on, giymek

the watch is the clock is

I’ve got

right

wrong

fast

slow

out of order

the right time the wrong time no watch no clock

 

Miss Staley and her class

This is a picture of a classroom with Miss Staley and her class. Michael, Kathy, Phil, Susan and other students are in this class. Miss Staley is teaching. She is teaching the Class. She is teaching geography. She is teaching her class geography. She is showing the students a country on the map. The country is Turkey. She is showing Turkey on the map. She is showing Turkey to her students. What is she doing? She is showing them Turkey on the map.

Now a student is raising his hand. He is Ted. He is asking something. He is asking a question. He is asking Miss Staley a question. He does not know the name of the capital of Italy. Miss Staley is telling him. She is telling him the name of the capital of Italy. She is showing him Rome on the map.

Here are Alex and Susan. They are talking. Miss Staley is telling them that students must not talk in class. But Alex only wants a •••• pencil. He has no p6ncii. Hs ¡3 asking ^usan to give nim n puncn. What is Susan doing? She is giving him a pencil. She is giving a pencil to Alex because she has two pencils and he has no pencil. Is Alex going to keep the pencil? No, he is going to give it back to Susan; because the pencil is hers. Susan is only lending the =W7 pencil. She Is landing A!ex the DeneiL She is lendina it to him

Turkish history. She is telling tnem ine nameo

Osman, Mehmet II, Süleyman the Magnificent, Selim etc. She is

going to ask them questions and give them another lesson about

ï UfKeÿ. me ouiuwih» M,w – –                                   *U‘“/ l51‘“                    «H

about Turkey. They often ask Miss Staley questions about Turkey s history. Miss Staley answers the questions and tells them all about these great men.

DIALOGUE

first STUDENT: What’s Miss Staley going to do to-day?

second STUDENT: I think she’s going to tell us about Turkey.

first STUDENT: Is it geography again? Look she’s going to the map.

second STUDENT: You are right, but I think she’s going to teach us all about Turkey; so she must first show us Turkey on the map.

first student: Perhaps you are right. Let’s see. Hush! She’s looking at us.

miss Staley: Yes, what do you want to ask, Ted?

TED:                          Can you tell us the capital of Italy, please?

Miss STALEY: Well, we aren’t doing geography now. I’m only showing you Turkey on the map because I want to teach you its history. However, the capital of Italy is Rome.

TED:                           I’m sorry, Miss Staley. When are you going to

teach us Roman history?

Miss STALEY: I will teach you Roman history next month.

 

To-day I’m going to tell you all about Turkey. Here’s Turkey on the map. It’s in the Balkan peninsula. It’s in the south-east, with the Aegean sea in the west. Turkey is a country of many cities: Ankara, Istanbul, İzmir, Adana, Eskişehir are some of these cities.

Can you give me a pencil, please. I have no pencil to-day.

Yes, I think I can give you a pencil; I’ve got two with me. Here’s a pencil.

Thank you; I’m going to give it back to you after school.

Why are you two children talking down there? You mustn’t talk when I’m giving you a lesson. You must know that.

I’m sorry, Miss Staley. I have no pencil and Susan is lending me one of her two pencils. We aren’t really talking.

It’s all right then. Now listen to the lesson.

What is it, Kathy? What do you want to ask? Why do we call Eskişehir?

Well, Eski means old, and şehir means city. Eskişehir mean’s the old city.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Can yo’U~remHr4©–ms?

Yes, certainly. Here it is.

Can I ask you a question? Yes, you can. I’m listening. Can you tell me the time? Yes, it’s four o’clock.

What’s Miss Staley teaching? She’s teaching history.

Who is she teaching?

She’s teaching us history.

Please show me your house. Here it is. This is my house. Now show me your room. There’s my room!

What’s that?

It’s a cake.

What’s Mrs. Heath doing? She’s giving the children some cake.

Haven’t you got an umbrella? No, I haven’t and it’s raining. Well, can I lend you mine? Thank you; you are very kind.

What’sTed asking Miss Staley? He’s asking her a question about Italy.

What’s she answering?

She’s telling him the name of the capital of Italy.

 

WORDS – IDIOMS – HISTORY

to raise, kaldırmak capital, başkent to want, istemek to give, vermek keep it, sende kalsın to give back, geri vermek to lend, ödünç vermek to continue devam etmek

in a way, bir biçimde after all, sonuç olarak

ancient, eski (tarihsel) God, Tanrı peninsula, yanmada city-state, şehir devleti really, gerçekten certainly, elbette, tabii

 

More about the verb to have

What is Miss Staley doing? She is giving her class a history lesson. She gives this class a history lesson four times a week. The students of this class have history lessons four times a week. How many times a week have they geography iessons? The students of this class have geography lessons three times a week. They don’t have music lessons three times a week. They only have music lessons every Friday.

Mr. Heath is shaving. He shaves every morning before breakfast. He has a shave every morning before breakfast. Michael does not have a shave because he is too young. Kathy does not have a shave. Nobody has a shave, except Mr. Heath. But Kathy and Michael have a wash and a shower every morning. Do Mr. and Mrs. Heath have a shower and a wash every morning? Yes, they do. Everybody has a shower and a wash every morning. Sometimes when they are not in a hurry they have a bath, but the Heaths usually have a bath in the evening before they go to bed.

DIALOGUE – ON THE TELEPHONE

—      Good morning, Mrs. Heath. Nice day to-day, isn’t it?

—      Good morning, Mrs. Smith. Yes indeed it is.

—      How are you? What are you doing now?

—      Oh, I’m all right, thank you;

I am having a cool shower because it’s hot.

—      Do you often have a cool shower?

—      Well, I have one every day in summer.

What are you doing?

—      Oh, I’m having a cold drink. It is hot indeed.

—      Hello, Paddy. What are you doing?

—      Hello! I’m having a bath.

—      Good boy! How come you are having a bath?

You usually don’t have baths.

—      Well I don’t like baths and I don’t have them very often, but to-day I’m celebrating my birthday.

That’s why I’m having a bath.

—      How nice! Many happy returns then; and have a good bath.

—      Thank you for the wishes but no bath is a good bath!

 

 

GRAMMAR

“to have“ fiil gibi kullanıldığında aynı cümledeki nesneye göre Türkçe’de çeş* antamlar kazanır. Have a bath – Banyo yapmak, Have a drink – İçki “r ~     – vompk vemek aibi. Soru ve olumsuz biçimleri de tıpkı

diğer fîüıer gibi to do yardımcı fiili kullanılarak yspuir.

All people have three meals a day. They have breakfast in the morning, lunch at noon, and dinner in the evening. Breakfast is their first meal, lunch is their second meal, and dinner is their last meal.

In England people have a big breakfast. They have eggs, butter and jam and tea or coffee. Sometimes, the first thing they have is fruit juice like orange-squash, pineapple juice, or grapefruit juice.

For lunch they do not have fruit juice or eggs, butter and jam. They usually have a hot meal of meat or fish and vegetables. Some people have lunch with coca-cola. Busy people usually have a small lunch with tea or coffee.

Dinner in England is a big meal. People have soup, meat or fish, and vegetables.

In Turkey breakfast is a small meal. Nobody drinks fruit-juice and very few people have sausages and eggs. They like better drink tea or coffee. The climate in Turkey is hot and people do not have a big breakfast. But people have a big lunch and a big dinner.

The Turkish have lunch and dinner early because people go to bed 1 early.

 

FOR STUDY

Where is Michael now?

He’s here. He’s having a bath.

Doesn’t he have a bath in the morning?

No, he doesn’t. He has it in the evening.

When do the Smiths have lunch?

They have it late.

How late do they have it?

Oh very late; at about one o’clock.

What’s Tom doing?

He’s having a sleep.

Doesn’t he have a sleep at night?

No, he doesn’t. He likes to have a sleep in the morning.

Does Fluffy have a nice time in the country?

Oh, yes he does. He plays with other dogs and he has a lot of fun. Why does he have fun?

Because he chases rabbits.

Do students have long holidays in Britain?

No, they don’t. They have summer holidays in July and August.

WORDS – IDIOMS

shave, traş olma wash, yıkama shower, duş bath* banyo indeed, gerçekten wish, dilek bacon, beykon fruit, meyve

how come? nasıl oiuyor aa how nice! ne güzel

many happy returns, nice mutlu yıllara (yaşgününde) to have a nice time, iyi vakit geçirmek to have fun, eğlenmek

The present perfect tense (simple)

A’**1* s Mr Heath doing?

»^ ^                                                           ‘ P ®

■=* ° if

“s ^                   T ” -• arrRcnr–:”.

He smokes his pipe after he has dinner.

What is Michael doing?

He is dressing.

He has had his shower and now he is dressing. He has a shower before he dresses every morning.

What is Phil doing?

He is reading a book about Rome.

Has he visited Rome?

No, he hasn’t visited Rome, but he has visited Paris.

Kathy is going to go to school.

She has had her breakfast, she has opened the door and now she is going out.

She is going to go to school.

The window is open because it is hot.

In summer Mrs. Heath opens the windows.

It is a hot day today

and she has opened the window.

Is the bus running?

No, it is not, because it has stopped.

Why has it stopped?

Because this is a bus-stop. It has stopped e because people are at the bus-stop.

Why is Mrs. Heath taking off her apron?

Because she has washed up

and she has finished her work in the kitchen.

WORDS

to take off, çıkarmak apron, önlük

 

GRAMMAR

THE PAST PARTICIPLE – EDİLGEN FİİL-SIFATLAR

  1. Türkçe’de fiillerin köklerine, -mış, -ik ekleri koyarak elde ettiğimiz sıfatlar, (kırılmış, kırık, oynanmış, sorulmuş) İngilizce’de bu adla anılır­lar. Fiil köküne -ed, -d ekleri konarak yapılırlar. Fiilin sıfat niteliği alışı geçmiş zamanda olmuştur.
INFINITIVE SIMPLE PRESENTTENSE PAST PARTICIPLE
MASTAR ŞİMDİKİ ZAMAN FIIL-SIFAT
to play 1 play played
to ask 1 ask asked
to open 1 open opened
to close 1 close closed
to smoke 1 smoke smoked
Sonlarında -y olan fiiller -ied alırlar.
INFINITIVE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE PAST PARTICIPLE
to carry 1 carry carried
to try 1 try tried
to hurry 1 hurry hurried
  1. Düzenli fillerde alınan bu -ed eki aynı zamanda fiillerin geçmiş zamanda (simple past tense) aldıkları biçimdir. Biz de Türkçe’de bu isim fiilleri geçmiş zaman eki kullanarak yaparız ama sadece -mis eki kullanırız, kırıldı sandalye demez, kırılmış yada kırık sandalye deriz.
  2. İngilizce’de kurala uymayan ve -ed almayan birçok *ii! vardır Bu fiiüerin

y* i ; = S : ’ ‘-S! *! j! ;•*_*’ “ * ‘      -= = –                  …. f 1 -_r , ‘ t    ^

Mil OIİ 1 U İ V İI İ                            ı, ,\ıı ı m d— u ı t o ‘,.40 i v t a im                                              m no , i .                                   = —-** Sw=î                                   ; üî j î – –

kuralsızdır. İngilizce gramerde “participle form”, Türkçe çevirisinde ise fiilin 3cü durumu dediğimiz bu biçimi bir sonraki sayfada örneklerle

 

 

.PRINCIPAL PARTS – FİİL GÖVDELERİ PEG ULAR VERBS – KURALLI FİİLLER

a^sv^r^^nswerecr^ answered—————

attract – attracted – attracted Kaiîoyo . helieved – believed

« ö. ” y~ ‘vdi i iwvi *vU’*:““

nurry – hurled hurried tike – liked – liked love – loved – loved rest – rested – rested try – tried – tried

IRREGULAR VERBS – KURALSIZ FİİLLER

bite – bit – bitten bring – brought – brought catch – caught – caught come – came – come dig – dug – dug do – did – done feed – fed – fed forget – forgot – forgotten get – got – got go – went – gone hold – held – held know – knew – known let – let – let light – lit – lit lose – lost – lost make – made – made rise – rose – risen run – ran – run see – saw – seen speak – spoke – spoken spend – spent – spent teach – taught – taught tell – told – told think – thought – thought understand – understood – understood

 

»——— ►

Sessiz harfle biten kimi tek heceli fiiller -ed eki alırlarken sondaki sessiz harften önce sesli harf varsa iki kez yazılır: stop – stopped – stopped. Kurallı fiillerin ikinci ve üçüncü hallerini bulmak için, öğrendiğimiz ekleri fiil köküne ekleyerek fiil gövdelerini buluruz. Ama aynı kolaylık kuralsız fiillerde yoktur. Kuralsız fiillerin basit geçmiş zamanla (simple past tense) kullanılan ikinci hallerini ve çeşitli zaman ve kiplerle kullanılan 3cü hallerini ezberlemekten başka yol yoktur. Sayfa 17’de örnek cümleler gördüğünüz ve açıklamasını birsonraki dersin sonunda bulacağınız simple present perfect tense, have yardımcı fiili ile fiilin 3cü hali kullanılarak yapılır. Aşağıdaki örneklerde kuralsız fiillerin bu zamanla kulanımına ilişkin örnekler görüyorsunuz.

SİMPLE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE WITH IRREGULAR AND REGULAR VERBS

 

 

 

Has Mr. Heath gone to work? No, he hasn’t; he’s still here. Has Mrs. Heath come back? Yes, she has;

she has already come back.

Has Michael studied his lessons?

Yes, he has;

he has already gone to bed. Has Kathy had her dinner? No,she hasn’t; she’s still having it.

Has Paddy got up?

No, he hasn’t; he’s still in bed.

Has his mother made the

she’s already serving it.

Has Tom eaten his meal? Yes, he has;

he has already eaten it. Has he slept?

No, he hasn’t; he’s sitting on a chair.

Has Miss Staley taught geography?

Yes, she has;

she has already taught

geography.

Has she taught history?

No, she hasn’t;

she’s still teaching history.

Has Mr. Smith shaved? Yes, he has.

vm. ^nci hes >»reaay having breakfast.         =


 

 

 

 

Have the children got up? No, they haven’t got up yet. Has the dog had its meal? Yes it has.

Oh, has it had it already?

Mary has read the book.

Oh, has she read it already? George hasn’t washed yet. Oh, hasn’t he washed yet?

I’ve seen Mrs. Smith.

Oh, have you seen her already?

Have you told her the news? No, I haven’t told her the news yet.

Does Helen still go to school? Yes she does, but she hasn’t gone to University yet.

Oh, hasn’t she?

 

 

 

 

still – yet – already

GRAMMAR

  1. still = hâlâ (olumlu ve soru cümlelerinde kullanılır) Example:

She is still here. Is she still here?

He still goes to school. Does he still go to school?

  1. yet = henüz (soru ve olumsuz cümlelerde kullanılır) Example:

He isn’t here yet. Has he come yet?

  1. already = daha şimdiden (olumlu ve soru cümlelerinde Example:

He has already come. Has he already come?

PRINCIPAL PARTS

be – was – been have – had * had e drink – drank – drunk eat – ate > eaten sleep – slept – slept sit – sat – sat teach – taught • taught hear – heard – heard read – read – read

 

 

An old man

This is an old man. He has been a teacher, but now he does not work. He is too old to work. He is sitting on a bench in the park. Now he can rest without working and he can enjoy the fresh air of the park.

There he is, alone, without any company. He has just read the newspaper and he is thinking. He is thinking of his past life. He has taught hundreds of children and he has been a teacher at a lot of schools. His pupils loved him, he remembers.

He has married and he has a wife and two children. His children are married now and he lives alone with his old wife. She is not with him because she is too old to wal k to the park. He remembers a lot of things now. He remembers that he has been a student, that he has played in the playground of this park and that he has visited a lot of countries and cities and has seen a lot of places and people. He has visited countries in Europe, but now he is too old to travel. He can only walk to the park and remember. But he is still happy, because he has done a lot of good things. He has helped and loved his pupils, he has been a good father to his children and a good husband to his wife. He is a good man because he has done his duty. His name is Mr. Heath. He is Mr. Heath’s father. He is a happy and proud grandfather and his wife is a happy grandmother. They both love their grandchildren and Michael and Kathy adore their grandparents.

 

 

 

 

WORDS

 

 

 

bench, sıra (parkta)

to enjoy, tadına varmak

fresh, taze

to think, düşünmek

to think of, gözünde canlandırmak

life, yaşam, hayat

to remember, hatırlamak, anımsamak to marry, evlenmek to travel, yolculuk etmek, gezmek to help, yardım etmek to live, yaşamak, yaşam sürmek duty, görev ‘ grandfather, dede grandmother, nine grandparents, dede ve nine grandchildren, torun to adore, çok sevmek, tapmak

 

Miss Staley at home

This is Miss Staley. She is sitting in an armchair in her living-room and it is half past eight in the evening. She always comes back from school at five o’clock every day.

How long has she been here? She has been here since five o’clock. She has been here for three and a half hours.

When M iss Staley goes home after school she has a bath and then she makes tea at six o’clock. At a quarter past six she sits in her armchair, drinks tea and reads a book. She is still reading a book now and it is half past eight.

How long does Miss Staley sit in her armchair?

She sits in her armchair for two hours and fifteen minutes.

In October it gets dark at five thirty because the day is short and ; the night is long. Miss Staley then turns on the lights because she cannot read in the dark. It is early October now and the iiohts^have been on since half past five. They have been on for three hours.

 

What is Mr. Heath doing?

He is washing his car.

He has not washed it since Sunday and it is Thursday now.

He has not washed it for four days.

Mrs. Heath is making a cake.

She has not made a cake for a long time. She has not made a cake since Kathy’s birthday.

Kathy’s birthday is in August and now it is October.

She has not made a cake for two months.

These two men are shaking hands.

They are shaking hands

because they have not seen each other

since the beginning of October.

They have not seen each other for 10 days.

Mrs. Heath is going to the hairdresser’s. She has not visited the hairdresser’s for a month.

She has not visited the hairdresser’s since the beginning of September.

Michael is going to play tennis.

He has not played tennis since last Saturday and it is Saturday to-day.

He has not played tennis for a week.

 

—      Good morning, Paddy.

—      Good morning, Michael;

aren’t we early to school to-day?

—      Yes, indeed we are.

How long have you been here?

—      Oh, I’ve been here since half past seven.

I’ve been here for 15 minutes already,

and I’ve seen a few other classmates already.

They’ve come early too.

—      Hello Mrs. Smith.

Have you already come to the market?

—      Good morning, Mrs.Heath.

Yes, I’ve come early to-day

because I’m going to go to the hairdresser’s this morning. I’ve already been here for 20 minutes.

I’ve been here since half past eight.

—      It’s rather late now and I must go.

—      Oh, please stay.

You haven’t stayed very long.

—      Well I’ve stayed since six o’clock and it’s almost eight now.

I’ve stayed for almost two hours.

—      What are you studying?

—      I’m studying French now.

—      Are you learning French?

—      Yes, I am.

—      How long have you studied French?

—      Oh, I’ve studied French for two years

and I can speak French a little now.

 

Michael and Kathy have gone to the cinema

mr. heath: What time is it?

mrs. heath. It’s seven o’clock; I’ve just looked at my watch. mr. heath: Are the children still out? mrs. heath: Yes, they are; they haven’t come back yet. mr. heath: Isn’t it rather late? How long have they been out? mrs. heath: Well, it’s Sunday and I’ve given them permission to stay out a little late to-day. mr. heath. How long have they stayed out already? mrs. heath- They’ve stayed out for about 3 hours; they’ve been out since four o’clock. mr. heath: But why have they been out so long? mrs. heath. They’ve gone to the cinema and the picture is a long one; it’s “The Bridge on the River Kwai” ; it’s a long picture, you know. mr. heath. Yes, I know. At least it’s a good picture. Have they taken their umbrellas with them? It’s raining outside. mrs. heath: No, they haven’t; but the cinema is quite near. mr. heath: Tom and Fluffy are sleepy. Have you fed them? mrs. heath No, I haven’t. The children always feed them. Besides Tom sleeps all day long.

 

grammar

SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

A Türkçe’de zaman olarak tam karşılığı bulunmamakla birlikte biraz zorla- mayla ‘gelmMurumday,m“ ya da “yaprrnş bulunuyorum“ cümlelerinde­ki -mis durumdayım, -miş bulunuyorum” terimlerinin bu zamana benze­diği söylenebilir. Bu zamanla cümle yapmak için to have yardımcı asıl fiilin üçüncü hali kullanılır.

Örnek:

l have closed – kapatmış bulunuyorum.

\ have eaten – yemiş durumdayım.

Soru ve olumsuz cümle yapmak, için, to have yardımcı fiili (3cu teKiı şalruslarcia has) başa a\\n\r. A.s\\ Vu\ değilmeden Ka\w.

Örnek:

Have I closed? – I have not (haven’t) closed Have I eaten? – I have not (haven’t) eaten

B. Hangi durumlarda Simple present perfect tense kullanıyoruz?

  1. Geçmişte belirli olmayan herhangi bir zamanda yapmış olduğumuz ve bize bir deneyim, bir bilgi bırakmış olan eylemlilikleri anlatırken: Örnek:

Michael has visited France.

She has seen an elephant.

We have seen that picture.

Geçmişte başlanan iş henüz bitmişse, yine bu zaman kullanılır. Bu durumda, “şimdi, şu anda” anlamlarına gelen just sözcüğü de cümleyle birlikte kullanılabilir.

He has just gone.

I have just come.

They have just made it.

—■ Geçmiş zBmanin                  hir rtrunriii uRsisysn vc konuşmakta oiduâu

muz belirli ana kadar süren durumları anlatırken:

I have worked since 8 o’clock

Görüldüğü gibi, bu cümlede bir de since sözcüğü kullandık. Sekizden beri çalışmakta olduğumuzu söyledik böylece.

Konuştuğumuz anda saat 11 ’se, üç saattir çalışmaktayız demektir, bu durumu şöyle ifade ederiz:

I have worked for 3 hours

Başka örnekler görelim:

I have not seen John since Monday I have not seen John for 3 days She has studied Italian since 1987 She has studied Italian for three years

İngilizce’de çok sık kullanılan bu zaman Türkçe’ye çevrilirken kimi zaman -di’li geçmiş zaman, kimi zaman miş’li geçmiş zaman ya da bunların varyantları kullanılır. Bu zamanı öğrenmenin en iyi yolu ise, Türkçe’ye çevirmeğe çalışmadan, İngilizce düşünmeğe çabalayarak kavramaktır.

WORDS – IDIOMS

how long, ne kadar zaman since, -den beri to get dark, havanın kararması to turn on/off, (ışığı) açmak/kapamak to shake hands, el sıkışmak hairdresser, kuaför hairdesser’s, kuaför (işyeri) beginning, başlangıç * to be out, dışarıda olmak permission, izin

at least, en azından, hiç olmazsa quite, epeyce

PRINCIPAL PARTS- IRREGULAR VERBS shake – shook – shaken

The simple past tense (auxiliary verbs)

To-day is Monday. Yesterday was Sunday.

I’m here at school to-day. I was not here yesterday.

You are here at home now. You were not here at 12 o’clock noon. You were at school.

We are home to-day. We were in the country yesterday.

We were with my aunt yesterday. She lives in the country.

Michael is eleven years old this year.

He was ten years old last year.

Where is your father? He’s not here.

He was here an hour ago, but he is not here now.

Were you at home yesterday afternoon?

No, I wasn’t but I was here yesterday evening.

We were in İstanbul two months ago. We were not in Paris.

We were in Paris last month.

Were you at the theatre yesterday?

No, I wasn’t at the theatre; I was at the cinema.

Was Michael at the seaside this afternoon?

No, he wasn’t; he was in the park.

Were we at school yesterday?

No, you weren’t, because it was Sunday.

Is it a sunny day to-day?

Yes, it is, but yesterday was a rainy day.

Wasn’t it a rainy day last Thursday?

No, it wasn’t but it was a cold day.

Weren’t you at home this morning?

No, I wasn’t; I was at school.

Weren’t they in Istanbul last summer?

No, they weren’t; they were in France.

was not=wasn’t were not = weren’t

 

The verb to be

fMftfll-H C nACT TEMCE«Jillir k 1— I nv • » w! – J —
AFFIRMATIVE INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE
i was Was 1? I was not (1 wasn’t)
You were Were you? You were not (You weren’t)
j—jo yv3s Was he? He was not (He wasn’t)
She was Was she? She was not (She wasn’t)
It was Was it? It was not (It wasn’t)
We were Were we? We were not (We weren’t)
You were Were you? You were not (You weren’t)
They were Were they? They were not (They weren’
-i :v .  ; ■: -f T “■ -■ \j y’i .k kT

 

I had a bicycle last year. This year I have no bicycle.

You had a cold yesterday. You are well to-day.

He had a few balloons two hours ago, but now he hasn’t any.

She had a doll, when she was 8″years old. Now she hasn’t.

That dog had a house when it was in the country; it has no house now in the city.

We had a very good teacher last year.

We have a different teacher this year.

You had a scooter at noon. Whose scooter was it?

They had a mouse in their house last year; now they haven’t.

Had you a bicycle last year?

No, I hadn’t but I had a scooter.

Had Michael any marbles yesterday?

No, he hadn’t; he only had a ball.

Had Kathy a doll with her this morning?

No, she hadn’t; she only had a flower.

Had Fluffy a bone in his mouth a few minutes ago?

Yes, he had.

Had your old house a chimney?

No, it hadn’t, but my new house has.

Had we tennis-rackets when we went to the tennis court? No, we hadn’t.

Had they any books the first day at school?

No, they hadn’t.

had not=hadn’t

The verb to have

SIMPLE PAST TENSE
AFFIRMATIVE INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE
1 had Had 1? 1 had not (1 hadn’t)
You had Had you? You had not (You hadn’t)
He had Had he? He had not (He hadn’t)
She had Had she? She had not (She hadn’t)
It had Had it? It had not (It hadn’t)
We had Had we? We had not (We hadn’t)
You had Had you? You had not (You hadn’t)
They had Had they? They had not (They hadn’t)

 

He could play all day last summer because there was no school. I could count from one to one hundred when I was 4 years old.

My car was very good when it was new; it could run very fast. They could play tennis every Saturday

har>Qi ica thara u<ac rt/~k crhnrti in the attornnnn

k/wwuuwiw v i ■ w ■ w  i fw #w%=?£ ? = ? vi I v ^ ■ ivi * iwwi *■

We could go swimming every day when we had a car.

Now we can’t because our house is a iong way from the sea.

Could you go to the theatre last Sunday?

No, I couldn’t because there were no tickets.

Could Paddy fish when he was at the seaside with Michael? No, he couldn’t because he does not know how to fish.

We couldn’t go out last Sunday because the weather was rainy.

They couion i uuy tnc                                                             y r,=i,~ nrj ¡¡¡uiicv.

He had a dog but it couldn’t run because it was old.

Couldn’t you pass the examination?

No, 1 couldn’t; it was too difficult.

could not=couldn’t

The verb can

SIMPLE PAST TENSE
AFFIRMATIVE INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE
1 could Could 1? 1 could not (1 couldn’t)
You could Could you? You could not (You couldn’t)
He could Could he? He could not (He couldn’t)
She could Could she? She could not (She couldn’t)
It could Could it? It could not (It couldn’t)
We could Could we? We could not (We couldn’t)
You could Could you? You could not (You couldn’t)
They could Could they? They could not (They couldn’t)

 

 

Have you prepared your geography lesson?

No, sir; I haven’t. I was too busy yesterday and I couldn’t prepare it.

Were you busy all day? Yesterday was Sunday. ( Weil, we had a walk in the morning.

Couldn’t you study after?

No, sir; I couldn’t because there was rain.

Does it rain inside your house? Can’t you study when it rains?

No, sir, because I love rain. I like to look at the rain.

It was not rainy in the afternoon. Couldn’t you study then?

No, sir, because I was busy.

Were you busy with other lessons?

No, sir; I couldn’t study any lessons then.

And why couldn’t you study any lessons then?

My friends were at home. When they come home we play.

Then you could certainly1 find time to study in the evening.

No, sir, because I was busy again.

Why were you busy then?

Oh, I had dinner, sir, and then it was too late to study.

Two women have a chat

MRS. smith: Hello Mrs. Jones. How nice it rs to see you after the holidays. How are. you?

MRS. JONES: Good afternoon, Mrs. Smith. I’m all right, thank you;

and how are yoi/?

MRS. SMITH: I’m fine, thank you. I haven’t seen you since last July. MRS. JONES: That’s right. We were on holiday in August. We were in Turkey.

mrs. smith: Oh, were you? Isn’t Turkey too far? mrs. JONES: Weii, ii’s a iitiie far away but it s only 4 hours by plane. How about you?

Where were you for a holiday?

MRS SMiT»’ We couldn’t go anywhere this year. I was ill.

jqhes* Oh, I’m sorry to hear that. But how long were you ill? v-S SV’lH: A!J summer long, but I’m all right now.

S\£S So now you must wait for next year to come. smith. Oh, that’s too long io wait. We are going to spend Christmas in Paris and stay for two weeks.

MRS JONES: Isn’t it rather too cold in Paris then?

MRS. smith: It’s a little cold but it’s not so far. I wanted to go to Turkey but we couldn’t pay so much money; the fares are too high. You see we have made a mistake. We had a lot of money last year and we had our holidays in Scotland to save money and buy a new car. mrs. JONES: Well, at least you can enjoy a new car. By the way, couldn’t you drive to Turkey in it? mrs. SMITH: But it’s too small. It can only take half the family! MRS. JONES: So last year you had a new car, this year you were ill and you couldn’t go to Turkey and now you are well but the car isn’t big enough. That’s bad luck!

■■                         ri-‘

:v                     ¿rtiÄf‘-fc’klMi eri

 

 

 

WORDS – IDIOMS

yesterday, dün seaside, deniz kıyısı different, farklı ticket, bilet examination, sınav chat, sohbet t     on holiday, tatilde

to spend (Christmas), (Noel’i) geçirmek

ill, hasta

fares, bilet ücreti

mistake, hata, yanlış

enjoy, tadını çıkarmak

PRINCIPAL PARTS – IRREGULAR VERBS take – took – taken pay – paid – paid

 

NOTES FOR STUDY

ADVERBIAL PHRASES OF TIME • ZAMAN ZARFI CÜMLELERİ

yesterday morning, dün sabah yesterday noon, dün öğleyin

yesterday afternoon, dün öğleden sonra                             *

yesterday evening, dün akşam

last night, dün gece

last Monday, geçen Pazartesi

last Tuesday, geçen Salı

last Wednesday, geçen Çarşamba

last week, geçen hafta

last year, geçen yıl

DIFFICULT WORDS – ZOR SÖZCÜKLER

  1. 1.    Ago = “önce” anlamına gelir. Bu nedenle genellikle geçmiş zamanla kullanılır.

Örnekler:

I had a dog 3 years ago.

She was a student 4 years ago.

They were here two hours ago.

  1. 2.    Fine = Sıfat ve zarf olarak kullanılır ve “iyi, güzel, hoş” anlamına gelir. Örnekler:

He is a good boy. Fine, then he is certainly a good student.

Have you finished your study? Yes, I have. Fine, you can play now.

  1. 3.    Hear – “duymak, işitmek” anlamına gelir. Bir haberi duymak anlamı da

vardır.

ürnekier:                                                                    

I hear that he is going to go to England.

I hear that George going to be a doctor.

to hear fiili hangi anlama geiirse gelsin, sürekli zamanda asla kulla= nılmaz

 

Long = “uzun” anlamına gelen sıfat.

Örnekler:

A long dress. A long tail

a long time, how long, to be long terimlerinde “zaman uzunluğu” hoiirtmpk icin kullanılır.

He had studied English tor a long nme How long have they been here?

Don’t be long! (geç kalma)

Aynı sözcük bir noktadan uzaklığımızı belirtmek için de kullanılır. Örnekler:

His house is a long way from here.

It’s a long way to Tipperary.

This = Türkçe’deki “bu” işaret sıfatının görevini yapar. Günün vakitleri ile kullanıldığında “bugün” anlamı verir.

This morning = bu sabah

This afternoon – bugün öğleden sonra

This evening = bu akşam

Tonight = bu akşam (hiçbir zaman this night denmez)

Zamanla ilgili benzer terimlerin de benzer anlamları vardır.

This week = bu hafta This month – bu ay This year = bu yıl

Ayrıca, ülkemiz, şehrimiz derken de, our country demek yerine, this country, this city, this town deriz.

To save sözcüğü, korumak anlamına geldiği gibi, kurtarmak ve tasarruf etmek anlamlarına da gelir. He has saved my life (hayatımı kurtardı). He is saving money to go to England.

He has saved 3.000 Liras.

A car goes fast; it saves time.

Burn gas and save electricity. (Havagazı yakıp elektrikten tasarruf edin).

The verb to do

SIMPLE PAST TENSE AFFIRMATIVE

I did You did He did She did It did We did You did They did

To do fiili bağımsız fiil olarak kullanıldığı zaman, “yapmak” anlamına gelir. Ayrıca cümleleri olumsuz ve soru durumunda yazmak için yardımcı fiil olarak da kullanılır. İlginç bir durumsa, fiilimizin bir cümlede hem ana fiil hem de yardımcı fiil olarak kullanılmasıdır. Örneklere bakarak bu durumu inceleyin.

INTERROGATIVE NEGATIVE
Did 1 do? 1 did not do (1 didn’t do)
Did you do? You did not do (You didn’t do)
Did he do? He did not do (He didn’t do)
Did she do? She did not do (She didn’t do)
Did it do? It did not do (It didn’t do)
Did we do? We did not do (We didn’t do)
Did you do? You did not do (You didn’t do)
Did they do? They did not do (They didn’t do)
INTERROGATIVE – NEGATIVE
Didn’t 1 do?
Didn’t you do?
Pi; 1 — -J — /~iUluii l ric uu r
Didn’t she do?
Didn’t it do?
Didn’t we do?
Didn’t you do?
Didn’t they do?

 

did not = didn’t

Boylece to dö fnttnmgeçiniş^                                        olan did sözcûâü^Lİlana-

rak geçmiş zaman, past tense ile olumsuz ve soru cümleler yapabiliriz. Örnekler:

Did I play? = oynadımmı?

He didn’t come = gelmedi.

Didn’t she see you? = seni görmedi mi?

 

The simple past tense (regular and irregular verbs)

4cü dersin dilbilgisi bölümünde gördüğümüz gibi kurallı fiillerin geçmiş zaman halleri sonlarına -©d yada -d ekleri getirilerek yapılır. Kuralsız fiillerse ezberlenmelidir. İngilizce’de fiillerin çeşitli zamanlarda kullanmak iç^n fiil kökünden türetilmiş üç ayrı biçimi vardır. Birincisi mastar halidir. İkincisi basit geçmiş zamanda kullandığımız ikinci biçim, üçüncüsüyse, “participle” da dediğimiz üçüncü biçimdir. Aşağıdaki metinde, bu üç kullanıma ilişkin çeşitli örnekler sunan bir tekrar bulacaksınız.

—     Did you see Phil at school this morning, Paddy?

—     No, I didn’t.

He was ill and he stayed in bed.

—     Then that’s why I did not see him.

—     That’s right; he’s been ill since last Friday. Didn’t you know?

—     No, I didn’t know. Did you visit him?

—     No, because my mother did not let me.

You see he has caught a bad cold and my mother was afraid,

I could catch it from him.

—     Have you dug the garden, Harold?

—     No, I haven’t, Barbara. I don’t dig it every day. I dug it yesterday.

—     Have you mown the lawn?

—     No, I haven’t because I lost the lawn-mower last week.

—     At least have you washed-up?

1 have had no time to do the dishes because I have been busy with the bedrooms.

—     No, I haven’t.

 

—haven’t you done anything then?

—       ^¡o, i haven’t. Oh, yes ! have.

! read my newspaper after breakfast,

then I played marbles with Michael

and now I’m playing chase – me with Fluffy.

—      Good Heavens! You have certainly been busy!

—      Have you brought your homework, Phil?

—       No, Miss Staley, I haven’t brought it, but I’ve done it.

—      When did you do it?

—       I did it yesterday afternoon.

—       How long did it take you to do it?

—      Oh, it took me about three hours, Miss Staley

—      What time did you do it?

—       It was from 4 o’clock to 7 o’clock, I think.

—       I think you are wrong.

You did not do it in the afternoon.

Perhaps you haven’t done it at all.

I saw you at the tennis-court yesterday afternoon.

 

—      Have you visited Italy?

—      Yes. I have. I went there last year.

—      How nice! Where did you stay in Italy?

—      Oh, only in Florence.

Some friends invited us to stay with them and they live in Florence.

—      I’ve heard that Florence is a very interesting city.

—      Indeed it is. It s a beautiful city with many monuments.

—      Yes, I know. Isn’t Michelangelo from Florence?

—      Yes, Michelangelo, and Giotto, and Dante.

Have you visited Italy?

—      Yes. I have. I went there three years ago, but I did not go to Florence or Rome.

I only visited north Italy

and I stayed in Milan and Venice.

—      Oh, Venice is very beautiful.

I’ve always wanted to go to Venice.

—      Yes, like Florence, it’s a city of great history.

I saw a lot of important places

like the Doge’s Palace, museums and monuments.

—      I think that I’m going to go to Venice for my next holiday!

 

  1. Shakespeare


Shakespeare was a great writer of comedies and tragedies. He was born at a small town in the country. The name of the town is Stratford-on-Avon and it is in the middle of England. When Shakespeare became a young man he married Anne Hathaway and after a short time he left Stratford and he went to London. He wanted to work for the theatre. First he became an actor and writer at the same time. His plays were so good that the theatres of that time were full of people. Even to-day, about four hundred years after his death, people fill the theatres to see his plays.

 

  1. 2.   Queen Elizabeth

Queen Elizabeth lived in the 16th century. Her father was King Henry VIII and her mother was Anne Boleyn. She was Queen of England for a long time. When she first became Queen, England was a small and poor country, but Spain was rich and very strong. When she died, England was big and strong but Spain then was a poor small country. That happened because Queen Elizabeth was a patriot, a clever and great Queen. She loved her people very much and they loved her too.They called her “Good Queen Bess’

 

  1. The Mosque of Süleyman

This wonderful mosque, was built during the reign of Suleyman the Magnificent, by the architect Sinan, between 1550 and 1557 A.D. It was built after Suleyman’s return from his victory in Hungary. We must remember that Süleyman the Magnificent decided to build this1 mosque after 30 years rule; that is why he wanted it to be unique. The mosque was built on one of the seven hills in İstanbul, inside the old Sultan’s palace which no longer exists today. The building consists of an outer courtyard, an inner courtyard and a place for prayer under the central dome. The outer courtyard is surrounded by old buildings which were used for an old academy, caravanserai, hospital, kitchens and baths. A visitor first enters the outer courtyard. On the right there are taps for washing – a ritual which is necessary before prayer. On the left there are 28 columns with 28 domes and a rectangular spring in the middle. This mosque is without doubt the most interesting Islamic building in İstanbul.

WORDS

to mow, biçmek

lawn-mower, çim biçme makinası.

homework, ev ödevi

writer, yazar

comedy, komedi

tragedy, trajedi

was born, doğdu

actor, oyuncu, (dişisi, actress)

mi oy. u van u üyuııU

OİUI I I

to fill, doldurmak century, yüzyıl king, krai

strong, güçlü, dirayetli

 

wonderful, muhteşem mosque, cam i cî,-irinö> .zamanında

Magnificent, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman

architect, mimar

unique, eşsiz

hill, tepe

inside, içinde

palace, saray

no exist, yok

building, bina consist of, …den meydana gelmiş outer, dış inner, iç

prayer, dua, namaz central, merkez dome, kubbe academy, medrese caravanserai, kervansaray hospital, hastane kitchen, mutfak visitor, ziyaretçi

 

VERBAL PHRASES – FİİL TERİMLER

to be afraid, korkmak

to be busy, meşgul olmak

to be sorry, üzgün olmak, üzülmek

to be hungry, aç olmak, acıkmak

to be thirsty, susamak

to be born, doğmak

to catch cold, soğuk almak, üşütmek

to catch a train, trene yetişmek

to catch an airplane, uçağa yetişmek

to catch a bus, otobüse yetişmek

to catch a ship, vapura yetişmek

Terimlerde gördüğümüz to be ve to catch bölümleri, fiilin kullanıldığı zamana göre çekilirler. Sıfat yada isimlerden türetilen bölümse çekilmeden kalır.

PRINCIPAL PARTS – IRREGULAR VERBS let – let – let catch – caught – caught dig – dug – dug mow – mowed – mown bring – brought – brought do * did – done write – wrote – written

 

 

The Teratrve pronoun who – whose – whom • which * that

I’m a milkman.

I‘m the man who delivers the milk here.

He’s the driver of the milk-van.

He’s the man who drives the van.

She’s the girl who sells flowers.

She sells flowers every evening.

We are the people who live next door.

We’ve come to visit you.

They are the gentlemen

who work with my father;

they are Mr. Brown and Mr. Field.

These are the ladies

who come home for tea every week;

they are Mrs. Brown and Mrs. Field.

I’m the dustman;

I’m the man who empties your bin every morning.

He’s the boy that quarrelled with Paddy.

His name is Henry.

She’s the girl that plays the piano / every afternoon; her name is Bess.

We are the children that live next door.

Our names are Sheila and Ben.

They are the people that have lost their way. Let’s help them.

Those are the girls that I’ve invited.

They are Lena and Betty.

They are coming to play with us.

DIALOGUE I

What’s that Kathy?

This is the book that my friend Helen lent me this morning.

Why did she lend it to you?

I wanted to read it; it’s a book which all children like to read.

But aren’t you reading the book which your fathef brought you last week?

Oh, I’ve already read that. It was a very good book. By the way, what have you done with the book which Aunt Edith gave you when we went to visit her?

I’ve lent it to Marcia. She’s the girl who lent me “Lorna Doone” last month.

Is she? And whose book is the book which I found in Michael’s room this morning?

Do you mean the book which has a yellow cover? That’s right, the book which has a yellow cover. That’s Phil’s book. It’s “Robinson Crusoe”. He lent it to Michael last Monday.

No, I don’t mean that book. I know whose book that is. I mean another book whose cover is yellow. Oh, 1 know. That’s Lorna’s book. It s “Treasure Island” by Robert Louis Stevenson.

Yes, yes, that’s the book. Now who is Lorna? She’s the girl whose parents have a shop round the corner.

You know, the shop which is next door to your hairdressers.

Does she go to school with you?

No, she goes to a different school. She takes the school-bii* which stons outside our door everv

—                                     r                              ■ •“ ~ * _/

morning.

Dialogue ss

Now, what’s that book that you liked so much? It’s “Robinson Crusoe”, which a writer, whose name Is Daniel Defoe, wrote.

Why aid you iike it so much?

-Won, It s very -Interesting; This man, Rooinson Crusoe, wno came from Hull, Yorkshire, ran away

iTwiti iiio poiui 113.

^¡:^S n A _ -■—- ~

»               mg mw i! iai ;

When he was a young man he got a job on a ship whose destination was a place which was a long way from England.

Was the ship good?

The book doesn’t say; but even ships that sailed across oceans in those days were small and not safe.

Did the captain, whom Crusoe asked for the job, take him?

Oh, yes, it wasn’t difficult to get a job on a ship in those days.

And what happened?

The ship sank in the middle of the ocean and Robinson Crusoe, was the only man who survived. He swam to an island which was small and deserted.

Did he stay there for a long time?

Yes, he stayed there until he almost became an old man. He built a hut, he planted vegetables and he ate wild birds and goats.

That’s why he managed to live for so many years. Oh, yes! Now! remember! I’ve read that book! I read it a long time ago, when I was a child. He’s the man who saved the life of a young native, whom he called Friday. This native, Friday came from another island and some other natives nearly killed him.

Yes. Friday is the young man whom Crusoe saved. And Crusoe is the young man who did not obey his parents and whom God punished!

I’m afraid that’s what the story is about.

 

WORDS

 

milkman, sütçü to deliver, dağıtmak milk-van, süt kamyonu to sell, satmak gentleman, beyefendi lady, ladies, hamm(lar) dustman, çöpçü to empty, boşaltmak bin, varil, çöptenekesi to quarrel, kavga etmek piano, piyano to invite, davet etmek cover, kaplama, örtme doctor, doktor treasure, hazine ¡ob, iş

destination, varış yeri

sailed, denize açılmak

safe, güvenli

captain, kaptan

to survive, hayatta kalmak ‘

desert, ıssız (metindeki anlam)

until (till), -e kadar

to manage, başarmak, becermek

to plant, dikmek (bitki)

native, yerli

to obey, itaat etmek

to punish, cezalandırmak

 

 

 

IDIOMATIC PHRASES – DEYİMSEL TERİMLER

next door, kapt komşusu, bitişik ev round the corner, köşeyi dönünce to run away, kaçmak, firar etmek PRINCIPAL PARTS – IRREGULAR VERBS

sell – sold – sold, satmak

lose – lost – lost, kaybetmek

find – found – found, bulmak

mean – meant – meant, kastetmek (bir düşünceyi)

sink – sank – sunk, batmak,

swim – swam – swum, yüzmek

become – became – become, olmak

build – built – built, inşa etmek

shoot – shot – shot, vurmak (kurşun, ok)

GRAMMAR                                                                               ————————-

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN – İLGİ ZAMİRLERİ

who, Türkçe’de “ki o” anlamı veren -an, -en eki. (gelen adam), who zamiri tekil ve çoğul kişiler için değiştirilmeden ve yalın halde kullanılmaktadır.

whom, Türkçe’de “ki onu” diye söylenebilir. Tekii ve çoğullar için

değişmez, Zamir -i halinde kullaniimaktadir.

which, Eşyalar içindir. Anlamca who zamirinin aynısıdır.

The Tr*3st, who is at the door, is my father.

The girl, who is at the door, is my sister.

The men, who are in the school, are teachers.

The women, who are in the school, are teachers.

~he man, whom you saw, is my father.

The woman, whom you saw, is my teacher.

The boys, whom you saw, are my friends.

The girls, whom you saw, are my sisters.

The book, which I have,is Kathy’s.

The chairs, which are in this room, are old.

The car, which you saw, is a Rover.

The apples, which I bought, are red.

İlgi zamirinin ait olduğu şahıs, belirgin değilse yada herhangi bir şahıssa, who, whom ve which yerine that ilgi zamiri kullanılabilir. Örnekler:

A man that plays the piano is a pianist.

Students that do not study are bad students.

The books that I read were all good.

Şu cümle yanlıştır:

My father, that is a doctor, is 40 years old.

Doğrusu:

My father, who is a doctor, is 40 years old.

whose, Türkçe, “ki onu” diye söylenebilir. Zamirin iyelik halinde kullanılışıdır. Tekil ve çoğullar için, kişiler ve eşyalar için kullanımı aynıdır.

t This is the boy, whose father is a teacher.

That is the woman, whose daughter is my friend.

This is the tree,whose leaves are red.

These are the men, whose children are my classmates.

These are the women, whose husbands are friends.

These are the houses, whose gardens have no lawns.

Not: that sözcüğü hiçbir durumda whose yerine kullanılmaz.

Revision – Tekrar – that ilgi zamiri

Şimdiye dek, that ilgi zamirinin dört durumda kullanılışına rasladık:

  1. Uzaktaki kişileri ya da eşyaları gösterirken işaret zamiri olarak kullanıldı.

Örnekler: That is my car. That is a woman.

  1. Uzaktaki kişiler yada eşyalar için işaret sıfatı olarak kullanıldı. Örnekler: That car is mine. That woman is tall.
  2. “ki” bağlacı olarak kullanıldı.

Örnek: He believes that it will rain.

  1. Bir önceki sayfada gördüğümüz gibi, ilgi zamiri olarak.

Örnek: The books that you lent me were new.

 

Savig?nn ]&§Son

V ss Sta ey has asked her class to write a composition:

S~e nas asked her pupils to describe a party at home.

The children are back to school after the week-end. They nave all brought their homework, the composition.

Here is Michael’s composition.

My birthday party.

Kathy and I invited some of our best friends and had a party to celebrate my eleventh birthday. My birthday is in December. The preparations began on the previous day. It was a very active day for everyone at home.

Father came and went all the time, as he could not buy every­thing at once. There is so much to buy for a party.

Each time he came home his hands were full of packets and boxes, some of which were small and some big. Among other things he bought balloons which we hung above our main door and candles forthe birthday cake . He also brought lots of sweets and cakes. When mother opened the packets and boxes we looked anxiously to see what was in them. But she did not open some of them. We understood that those contained gifts. Howe­ver we were very anxious to know whose gift each packet or box contained, but Daddy did not tell us.

 

Mother was very busy too. She went to the market and came back with a lot of packets. When she opened them we saw a huge turkey, potatoes, tomatoes, spices and fruit. She also bought flowers. Almost all day long she was busy preparing the turkey for the oven. Like all English families we like roast turkey.

Everybody was busy at home. Kathy and I decorated the living- room with flowers and balloons.

We also had a lot of fun as we tried to taste some of the sweets and cakes but we did not manage to get many. Mother always puts them on a high shelf and so we could not reach them easily. Yet. with the help of a chair, Kathy stole a few sweets as I watched at the door to warn her if mother happened to come in at that moment. With Kathy we even found time to play chase – me in the yard. It was cold but mummy was too busy to remem­ber that we were outside and she did not call us in. Fortunately we were lucky; we did not catch cold.

i am sure that Fluffy and Tom understood that it was an unusual day. Fluffy ran around all of us and barked with excitement all the time. He jumped and yapped with joy when he recognised his favourite food in a red tin, which mother bought for him. Tom did not go up the roof for his usual walk and he did not

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—— cc* to packet. Then suddenly he mewed when he -~sz a: ore packet which contained his favourite meal of

 

‘Text day everything was ready for the party. At about five c dock the bell rang and our friends came in. Paddy and his ssster, Ted, Phil and Salwa, an Arab girl who lives next-door. Everyone was very happy. Mummy played the piano, and we all sang and danced. Tom miaowed and Fluffy yapped. They pro­bably enjoyed the music.

The great moment came when father and mother gave us our gifts.

Mine was a wonderful electric train. Even Kathy and our friends had their gifts. Kathy’s was a new doll, which could sing. Paddy had a new necktie and his sister had a book. Phil had a rubber mouse to play with. Salwa was proud of her pearl necklace and Ted wore a new hat!

The rest of the evening we played chase-me and had a lot of fun. Then we had supper and ate sweets and cakes to our heart’s content.

What a pity we don’t celebrate my birthday twice a year at least!

 

 

WORDS

 

 

 

composition, kompozisyon previous, önceki active, etkin, aktif packet, paket among, arasında mistletoe, ökseotu main door, ana kapı candle, mum anxiously, merakla to contain, içermek gift, armağan, hediye anxious, meraklı, sabırsız huge, kocaman turkey, hindi potato, patates spice, baharat oven, fırın roast, fırında pişmiş to roast, fırında pişirmek to decorate, süslemek to try, çabalamak to taste, tatmak to warn, uyarmak moment, an fortunately, iyi ki lucky, şanslı sure, kuşkusuz excitement, coşku to yap, neşeli havlama to recognise, tanımak

favourite, en sevdiği tin, konserve

usual, her zamanki, alışılmış especially, özellikle curious, meraklı to sniff, koklamak contents, içerik carol(s), bayram şarkıları electric, elektrik, elektrikli train, tren

collar, tasma, yakalık rubber, silgi pearl, inci necktie, kravat

 

 

The reflexive pronouns

I’ve cut my finger;

I’ve cut myself and blood is coming out.

Be careful; dont’t hit yourself with that ruler.

What’s the matter with Phil?

Why hasn’t he come to school to-day? He hurt himself with a hammer and he’s going to the doctor.

Mrs. Heath is washing herself because she is going to cook.

The cat is washing itself; it has just had its meal.

We are washing ourselves because we have just finished playing basket-ball.

Where are the children?

They are washing themselves; they are going to come downstairs in a few minutes.

 

Page fifty-nine 59

 

M^shitTx Do you have any trouble with your children? heath: Well, sometimes i have trouble.

Children are always children. No child is perfect, you see. For instance the other day Kathy cut herself and we took her to the doctor. How about your son ? mrs. smith: He cuts himself almost every week. Besides he never washes himself. I must quarrel with him before he goes to the bathroom. mrs. heath: I think all children do not like to wash themselves.

Even we don’t wash ourselves often enough sometimes.

mrs. smith: Yes, that’s true. What’s the matter with your finger?

Have you cut yourself? mrs. heath: Yes, I’m afraid I cut myself with a knife in the kitchen the other day.

mrs. smith: Well, housework is so difficult. We tire ourselves with so many things that we become careless. mrs. heath: That’s right. Now here’s some tea and a tray with biscuits. I know that you like them. Please help yourself; we are old friends. mrs. smith: Oh, thank you. Yes, we are old friends, so I must make myself at home. By the way, did you hear about the Brown children? mrs. heath: No, what about them?

mrs. smith: They ran away from home last week and the police brought them back yesterday. mrs. heath: How bad! They must be ashamed of themselves!

 

 

 

The emphasizing pronouns

mr heath: What a lovely cake! Where did you buy it? mrs. heath: I did not buy it; I made it!

mr. heath: Did you really make this wonderful cake yourself? mrs. heath: Yes dear; I made it myself.

mr. heath.- Congratulations then dear. By the way, why are tl^e children out so late? mrs. heath: I’m afraid they are growing up now and they don’t think it’s so late. mr. heath: Did you tell them to come back home early? mrs. heath: I did; even so they are late. mr. heath: Well, we ourselves were late sometimes when we were their age, weren’t we? Children often think that they know better. mrs. heath: That’s right. After all they are responsible children.

You are late to come home sometimes yourself, aren’t you?

mr. heath: And so are you, when you go shopping. Now, how about another piece of that wonderful cake? mrs. heath: Yes, dear. I’m bringing you the whole cake and you can eat to your heart’s content!

 

 

THE REFLEXIVE OR EMPHASIZING PRONOUN’ ÜONUŞLU YA DA VURGULAmALI ZAMİRLER

Myself

Yourself

Himself

Herself

Itself

Ourselves

Yourselves

Themselves

Aynı zamirler hem dönüşlü hem de vurgulamalı zamir olarak kullanı­lırlar. Sadece “itself” zamiri bu genel kurala her zaman uymaz. Dönüşlü zamirleri en çok, to cut = kesmek, to wash = yıkamak, to hurt = incitmek, to shave – traş etmek fiilleri ile birlikte kullanılır. Dönüşlü zamirler, fiilden hemen sonra kullanılırlar.

I cut myself. He hurt himself. They washed themselves. Vurgulamalı olarak kullanıldıklarında ise, ya şahıs zamirinden sonra, ya da fiilden sonra kullanılırlar.

I myself did it. ya da; I did it myself. (Ben, kendim yaptım onu) She herself pulled out her tooth, ya da; She pulled out her tooth herself. (Dişini kendisi çekti)

We ourselves painted the house ya da; We painted the house ourselves. (Evi kendimiz boyadık)

Kimi zaman da, vurgulamalı zamir, by bağlacı ile cümleye bağlanır. He did it by himself.

‘ Ama by bağlacının vurgulamalı zamirlerle birlikte.en çok kullanıldığı yer, “yalnızlık” belirten cümlelerdir.

He lives by himself. (Yalnız yaşıyor)

Ayrıca, bu zamirler, for durum ekiyle birlikte de kullanılabilirler.

Listen for yourself (kendin dinle)

Go and see for yogrself (git ve kendin gör)

 

WORDS

blood, kan ruler, cetvel hammer, çekiç downstairs, alt kat trouble, sorun, güçlük perfect, mükemmel housework, ev işleri to tire, yorulmak careful, dikkatli careless, dikkatsiz

IRREGULAR VERBS

cut – cut – cut, kesmek hit – hit – hit, çarpmak, vurmak hurt – hurt – hurt, incitmek

IDIOMS – PHRASES

for instance, örneğin, mesela to run away, kaçmak, firar etmek to be ashamed, utanmak, utanç duymak even so, bunlara rağmen, öyle olsa da downstairs, alt kat

 

 

 

 

Çok katlı binalarda katlardan sözedilirken alt katlar için bu sözcük kullanılır. Üst katlar içinse, upstairs denir.

Mr. Smith lives downstairs; he lives on the second floor. Mr. Cook lives upstairs; he lives on the fifth floor.

Ru cumieierde kuiianiian downstairs ve upstairs sözcükleri konu­şanın Duiunaugu yenn un uoiunu üst ya da a?t katlardan herhangi b?ri anlamına yeHr Make,vourseif at horn^. kendi evinmiş gibi (rahatına bak)

Help yourseff7^hake^ouiseTf^nTome^eyymr^lWOTr—— Misafirin kendi kendine servis yapmasını istemek için kuiianıiır.

 

Adjective – Degrees of comparison

 

‘ T^By                        ^¡¿fc.

Box A >s the same size as box B.

Box A is as large as box B.

Look at these two lines.

They are the same length.

Line AB is the same length as line CD. Line AB is as long as line CD.

These two boys are the same height. Boy A is the same height as boy B. Boy A is as tall as boy B.

-B

-D

Are these railway lines the same width?

No, they aren’t.

Railway line A is not as wide as railway line B
They are not the same width.

Are these two women the same?

No they are not.

Woman A is not as fat as woman B
and woman B is not as thin as woman A.

Their weight is not the same.

Are these two girls the same?

No, they aren’t.

Girl A is not as short as girl B                           \\ 7/’

and girl B is not as tall as girl A

as….. as……

so…… as……

not as……. as.

not so……. as.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DIALOGUE

paddy: How old is Phil?

michael: He’s our age; he is as old as we are.

paddy: How old is his brother Ted?

michael: I think he is 15 years old.

paddy: Right, he isn’t our age;

we are not as old as Ted is.

mrs. heath. I’ve just seen Miss Staley. She looks very young/

mrs. smith: How old do you think she is?

mrs. heath: Oh, about twenty-eight.

mrs. smith: Oh, no; she isn’t as young as Miss Fielder.

Miss Fielder is twenty-eight. mrs. heath: She looks twenty-eight. mrs. smith: No, certainly not;

she is not so young as Miss Fielder is.

 

 

 

You know, my brother won the 100 yard sprint. How nice! How fast did he run it?

I think in 9 seconds.

Oh, come on; he couldn’t run 100 yards in 9 seconds!

Not even the world record is so fast as 9 seconds!

Well, I don’t know; but he certainly ran as fast as 10 seconds.

Oh!!!!!!

 

 

 

mr. heath         You are a fast driver George.

mr. smith.         Yes, I love fast driving.

mr. heath:        How fast can you drive?

mr smith:        Oh, as fast as 180 miles an hour.

mr heath:         Come on now. Nobody can drive

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michael: Why didn’t you spend your winter holidays London?

You went to London last year. paddy: I wanted to go to London. You know I like to visit the Zoo and the Planetarium and the parks.

MICHAEL: Y6S, but WHy’ GiUii * yvu y^y ;

paddy: My Mummy didn’t like the idea and we went to Brighton. You see it’s quiet in Brighton and there are no big crowds of people. michael: Well Brighton is a big town with lots of people and even traffic jams. I can’t say that Brighton is a quiet place.

paddy: Yes, but it’s not as noisy as London and the crowds are not as thick and there aren’t as many traffic jams as there are in London. michael: That’s true; there isn’t much noise and there aren’t as many people and cars as there are in London. paddy. Besides we had lots of fun in Brighton with the beaches and the sea and all that. michael: Why didn’t you go to Southend then? Brighton is not as quiet as Southend is. Southend is a small place and it’s by the sea too. You could still have lots of fun in Southend.

paddy: I don’t agree with you. Southend is not as noisy and not as crowded as Brighton but you certainly can’t have so much fun in Southend as you can have in Brighton. You see there are few places for children to play along the beach of Southend. michael: What time is it? i paddy: It’s nearly half past seven and the sun has gone down. michael: Good gracious; I didn’t know it was so late as that. I’m afraid we must go home now; our parents will be anxious.

WORDS

size, büyüklük, hacim large, büyük line, çizgi railway, demiryolu

 

width, genişlik, wide, geniş sprint, sürat koşusu second, saniye world, dünya

world record, dünya rekoru                                                                t

mile, mil (5.280 ayak) zoo, hayvanat bahçesi

Planetarium, Planetaryum (yıldız ve gezegenleri canlandıran maket

ve bir teleskopla bu maketin durduğu bina)

crowd, ahali, insan topluluğu

crowded, kalabalık

traffic, trafik

jam, sıkışma’

traffic jam, trafik sıkışıklığı thick, yoğun beach, deniz kıyısı

Brighton, Güney İngiltere’de Manş kıyısında kaplıcalarıyla ünlü bir kent.

Southend, Brighton yakınlarında küçük bir kent good gracious, vay canına!

GRAMMAR

  1. İki niteliği karşılaştırmak için kullandığımız as … as terimi Türkçe­’de “kadar” anlamına gelir. İlk as sözcüğü ardından, karşılaştırdı­ğımız sıfatı koyarız, daha sonra da ikinci as sözcüğünü ve karşılaştırmanın konusu olan ikinci kişi yada eşyayı.

Örnekler:

George is as tali as Helen (George, Helen kadar uzundur. It’s as bad as you say. (O, senin söylediğin kadar kötü)

2. Karşıiaşîîrmah sorular sorarken de, bildiğimiz yöntemi izleriz.

Are they as young as you believe?

3. Olumsuz cun ne yaparken, no* takısını sıfattan önce kullanırız. Örnekler

 

 

as high as ı nıouym. îl ■ –         Hir vurnu da yapmak istiyorsak, terimi not sc

-^5SîSLLiS.nOt SO U1U «B mcu y. v!                       ^”~wy               Od VMhil uSG“J

This box is not so heavy as that box. (Bu kitap, o kitabın olduğu kadar da ağır değil)

It’s not so cold as you say. (Hava, söylediğin kadar da soğuk değil)

Örneklerde de görüldüğü gibi, not so … as terimi Türkçe’de, kadar da olduğu kadar da anlamlan verir

 

Adjectives – Degrees of comparison -continued

Paul is twelve years old. His brother George is fourteen. George is older than Paul and Paul is younger than George.

Paul weighs 30 kilos and George weighs 35. George is heavier than Paul and Paul is lighter than George.

Today the temperature is 18 degrees centigrade; yesterday it w$s only 12 degrees. Today is warmer than yesterday. Yesterday was colder than today .

This building rs 30 metres high. The building across the street is 20 metres high. This building is higher than the building across the street.

George is fourteen years old, Paul is twelve and his sister Wendy is eight. George is older than Paul; Paul is older than Wendy; George is older than Wendy. George is the oldest of the three.

Phil is one metre and sixty five centimetres tall. He is taller than Michael; he is taller than Ted; he is even taller than Paul; he is taller than all the boys in his class; he is the tallest boy in the class.

There are a few books on Paul’s desk; there are also a few books on Michael’s desk, but they are not as few as the books on Paul’s desk. The books on Paul’s desk are fewer than those on Michael’s desk. There are very few books on Kathy’s desk. They are fewer than the books on Michael’s desk and fewer than those on Paul’s desk. The books on her desk are the fewest books of all, on the three desks.

Nelson’s column is the highest monument of all in London.

The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the five oceans.

Asia is the largest continent of all. and Australia is the smallest of

the five continents

 

geography lesson

 


Now, what’s the capital of Sweden?

It’s Stockholm,

Good. Do you remember what the capital of Spain is?

Yes, I do. It’s Madrid.

Which is bigger, Stockholm or Madrid? Madrid is, I think.

Now what’s the capital of France?

It’s Paris.

Good girl! Which is bigger, Paris or Madrid? Paris is; it’s the third biggest city in Europe. And which are the other two cities?

They are London and Moscow.

 

 

 

MISS STALEY:

ANOTHER STUDENT: MISS STALEY:

STUDENT MISS STALEY STUDENT MISS STALEY

Another student now. What’s the longest river in the world?

It’s the Amazon!

No, it’s not; it’s the Nile. The Amazon is the second longest river in the world. By the way, what’s the highest mountain?

It’s Mt. Everest, and it s in Asia.

What’s the largest city in the United States9 Los Angeles.

No, it’s wrong. Los Angeles is the second largest. New York is still the largest city in the United States of America.

 

—       Is there much juice in the first bottle?

—       Yes, there’s a lot of juice in bottle A.

—       Is there much in bottle B?

—       No, not much; there is a little juice in it, but not much.

—       Is there much juice in bottle C?

—       No, there’s little juice in bottle C; there’s less juice in it than in bottle B. There’s more juice in bottle B than in bottle C.

—       Is there more juice in bottle A than there is in bottle B?

—       Yes there is; there is more juice in bottle A than there is in either bottle B or bottle C; there is less juice in bottle B than there is in bottle A.

—       Which bottle has the most juice of all?

—       Bottle A has the most juice of all and bottle C has the least juice.

—      How much does Mr. Heath spend on tobacco every month?

—      He spends about £5 on tobacco.

—      And how much does he spend on clothes and petrol?

—       He says that he spends about £ 10 a month on clothes and £ 15 on petrol. He also spends about £3 on books.

—      He spends most of his money on petrol then.

—      Yes. he does because petrol is expensive. He spends less on clothes and even less on tobacco. Books only cost him £3 a month; they cost him the least of all.

—      Isn’t it strange? Books are cheaper than tobacco then.

—      Yes; fortunately thev are not very expensive But we must not forget that Mr. Heath smokes more than he reads and he reads less than he smokes!

–        Is Maureen a good student9

—       : es, ai ¡6 b vti: y yOOu ,……….. ………. >-T ■ ¡¡Lli! —- ¥ duu Ol^di! a:;i:

Anne, but ¿he’s not better than Kathy.

–      I know; Kathy is the best student of all the girls in the class, is Susan better than Mary?

—      Oh, Didn’t you know that Susan is the worst student of all the qtris9 She’s a nice gir!, but a bad student. She s even worse

In the class

—      Are there many students in your class?

—      No, noi many;         ‘             dnrientsare there in your class?

—      There are twenty-two. We’ve got more students than you. Perhaps your class is the smallest class in the school.

—      No, it isn’t. Julia’s class is the smallest. We’ve got more students in our class than Julia has in hers. There are only twelve students in her class. Her class has the least students of all.

—      Whose class has the most students of aH classes?

—      Fanny’s class; there are thirty two students in her class.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WORDS

temperature, hava sıcaklığı degree, derece centigrade, santigrat across, karşısında, üstünde continent, kara, kıta tobacco, tütün

GEOGRAPHY- COGRAFY

Stockholm, Stokholm Madrid, Madrid Paris, Paris,

London, Londra Moscow, Moskova The Amazon, Amazon Nehri The Nile, Nil Nehri Mt. Everest, Everest Tepesi Asia, Asya The United States of Amerika, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri Los Angeles, Los Ancılıs New York, Nev York

 

GRAMMAR

REGULAR ADJECTIVES – DEGREES OF COMPARISON KURALLI SIFATLAR – KARŞILAŞTIRMA DÜZEYLERİ

İngilizce’de sıfatlar arasında karşılaştırma yaparken, tek yada çift heceli oluşlarına göre ya da bileşik ve yalın olmalarına göre kimi değişik yöntemler kullanırız. Bileşik sıfatlardan kastımız, bir köke, -al, -ed, -ile, -ine, -ose, -ous, -ful, -ful, -less eklerinden biri alarak oluşmuş olmalarıdır. Bu tür sıfatları karşılaştırmalı biçimlerde kullan­mayı ileride öğreneceğiz. Şimdiye dek bu sıfatlardan careful, care- less, learned gibi birkaç tanesini öğrendik zaten.

Şimdi, bazı tek heceli sıfatlarla, sonlarına -er eki koyarak “daha farklılık şekli” yani comparative form ve sonlarına -est eki koyarak “en farklılık çekli” yani superlative form yapalım.

cheap – cheaper – cheapest

small

– smaller – smallest
warm – warmer – warmest

wise

– wiser – wisest
short – shorter – shortest

new –

■ newer – newest
light – lighter – lightest

safe –

■ safer – safest
long – longer – longest

full –

fuller – fullest

 

BİRKAÇ UYARI

-e harfiyle biten sıfatlar (wise, safe gibi) karşılaştırma eki olarak sadece -r ve -st alırlar.

Şu tür sıfatların da yazılışları değişir.

a)      Tek heceli sıfat, sessiz harfle biterse, bu son harf iki kez yazıldıktan sonra -er ve -est kullanılır.

b)      Sıfat, -y ile bitiyorsa, bu harf, -i harfine dönüşür ve -er, -est ekleri daha sonra kullanılır.

 

fat – fatter – fattest hot – hotter – hottest wet – wetter – wettest slim – slimmer – slimmest rainy – rainier – rainiest easy – easier – easiest heavy – heavier – heaviest pretty – prettier – prettiest.

 

 

 

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES KURALSIZ SIFATLAR

Aşağıdaki sıfatlar kuralsızdır, many sıfatının sayılabilir, much sıfatı­nın da sayılamaz isimler için kullanıldığını anımsayacaksınız.

much – more – most many – more -most little – less – least bad – worse – worst good * better – best

USE OF THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE DEGREES DAHA FARKLILIK VE EN FARKLILIK ŞEKİLLERİNİN KULLANIMI

a)      The Comparative Degree

Karşılaştırma yaparken, than sözcüğü ile birlikte karşılaştırma sıfatlarını nasıl kullandığımızı inceleyin.

Örnekler:

The weather in Stockholm is colder than in Paris.

George is taller than his father.

This box is smaller than that box.

İlk cümleden, karşılaştırılan isimleri biliyorsak, ikinci kez than kullan­maya gerek yoktur.

Örnekler:

Is George shorter than his father?

No, he’s taller.

Is this box bigger than that box?

No, it’s smaller.

p. 74 …

Dikkat: İngilizce’de “daha farklılık” gösteren karşılaştırma sıfatları, iki kişi, iki şey ya da bunların iki gurubu arasında yapılır. Türkçe’de bu biçimi sıfattan önce “daha” sözcüğü kullanarak gösteririz.

b)      The Superlative Degree

En farklılık şeklinde, the sözcüğünü, sıfattan önce, of takısını ise* ikinci isim ya da isim gurubundan sonra kullanırız.

Örnekler:

This boy is the tallest boy of all.

Mary is the thinnest girl of all the girls in her class.

Çoğu kez karşılaştırmanın ikinci bölümünü yazmayız.

Örnekler:

New York is the largest city (of all) in the United States.

Michael is the best student (of all) in this class.

Dikkat: En farklılık biçimi, 3 ya da daha fazla ismin karşılaştırılması sırasında kullanılır. Türkçe’de bu biçimi en sözcüğü ile belirtiriz.

Mrs. Heath is older than Miss Staley.

Fluffy is prettier than Spotty.

The coldest climate in Europe is in Sweden.

The Rolls-Royce is the best car in the world.

EXAMPLES

Whinh ¡«5 hiaa\/ior Ck UiIrN                                    ~ – *■ 1 s ~

Miii.n ¡o iivsu^i iiiciii «jcitnbuii, uui oamsun is wetter. Who’s the best student in your class?

Zeynep is the cleverest but Yusuf is the hardest worker.

 

Everyone says Monday is the worst day of the week.

There are fewer people in Turkey than India.

Our teacher often says “Loss noise and more work?”

‘ L 1’ —————- * hut it’c aisn the least interesting.

I’d like to have an eiuer brothet dui ınaiü im^oss.^.c because I’m the eldest in the family.

My aunt is older than my mother.

You’re the busiest person I know.

He’s lazier than I am.

That plan is safer than the first one.

Is your glass fuller than the others?

“OLD” Sıfatı

Bu sıfatın hem kurallı, (old – older – oldest) hem de kuralsız (old – elder – eldest) biçimleri vardır.

Kuralsız biçim, daha çok aile bireylerinden sözederken ve bir iyelik zamiriyle birlikte kullanılır. Aşağıdaki örnekleri incelerseniz konuyu daha iyi anlayacaksınız.

Paddy is older than Wendy; Michael is older than Kathy; he Wendy is older than Mary. is her elder brother.

Paddy is the oldest of the three.

How old are you?                                 George and Tom and Matthew

I’m twelve; and how old are are brothers. George is older you?  than Tom; Tom is older than

I’m ten.                                                  Matthew; George is Tom’s

Then I am older than you. My elder and Tom is Matthew’s brother is fourteen; he’s the elder. George is their eldest oldest of the three of us. brother ( the eldest).

 

Comparisons with more – most less – least

 

İstanbul is a large city.

It is larger than Ankara, or İzmir. No city is larger than Istanbul in Turkey.

Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey.

İstanbul is a famous city.

It is more famous than Ankara or İzmir.

No city in Turkey is moFe intere­sting than İstanbul.

Istanbul is the most interesting city in Turkey.

July is a hot month.

It is hotter than April or May. It is hotter than August or September.

It is the hottest month of the year.

April is a very pleasant month.

It is more pleasant than May. It is more pleasant than June or March.

It is the most pleasant month of the year.

Sheila is tall and thin.

She is taller and thinner than

MİlUti.

She is taller and thinner than Georgia and Maureen.

She is the tallest and thinnest of the four girls.

Sheila is a very attractive girl. She is more attractive than Alice.

She is more attractive than Georgia and Maureen.           ‘

She is the most attractive girl of the four girls.

Phil’s hands are dirty: Phil is careless.

Paddy’s hands are dirtier, be­cause he is more careless. Paul’s hands are even dirtier than Paddy’s.

Paul’s hands are the dirtiest hands because he is the most careless boy of the three.

Mr. Smith s car is old and it is not expensive.

Mr. Smith’s car is older than Mr. Field’s.

It is less expensive than Mr. Field’s.

Mr. Smith’s car is older and less expensive than Mr. Long’s car.

Mr. Smith’s car is the oldest and least expensive car of all.

Leeds is a smaller town than London.

it is less crowded than London. Cambridge is a smaller town than Leeds.

It is less crowded than Leeds. Cam bridge is the smaiiesi and least crowded town of the three

My sister is a good and careful student.

She is a better and more careful student than Maureen. She is even a better and more careful student than Susan, Sne—is tb^ best—and most careful student of the three.

 

 

 

 

Where did you spend Saturday afternoon? We went to an art exhibition and we saw some of Henry Moore’s sculptures.

Who’s Henry Moore?

Don’t you know? He’s a famous sculptor; actually, he’s the greatest and most famous sculptor in the world.

What’s the most beautiful monument in

Europe?

The Parthenon in Athens.

How about the Colosseum?

That’s beautiful too.

Yes, that’s beautiful too but the Parthenon is more beautiful. What’s the most famous bridge on the Thames?

It’s the Tower Bridge.

Yes, it is; but is it the most perfect of all the bridges in Britain?

I don’t know. I think there is a more perfect bridge in Wales. It’s the Menai Strait suspen­sion bridge.

Why do you think it’s more perfect?

Because it’s a suspension bridge and it’s more difficult to build a bridge across the Menai Strait with its strong currents than on the Thames.

 

Can you tell me a tew of the most crowded cities in the world?

New York, Paris, Rome and, I believe, Athens too.

Can anyone tell me where the most crowded place in the world is?

I think it’s in Japan. It’s Tokyo.

That’s right. Tokyo is the largest city in the world.

What’s the least crowded place in the world? The Sahara Desert.

That’s right; it’s one of the most deserted places in the world.

Isn’t it the most deserted?

No, because there are other places that are as deserted as the Sahara Desert, like the Brazilian Jungle or the Antarctic.

It must be very cold in the Antarctic. Indeed, it’s the coldest place in the world. And what’s the hottest place in the world? Most people think that it’s in Death Valley. Death Valley is in California.

 

 

 

WORDS – NAMES – PLACES

sculpture, heykel sculptor, heykeltraş Cambridge, Kembriç, bir üniversite şehri Lefeds, Kuzey İngiltere’de bir kent Japan, Japonya Tokyo, Tokyo

The Sahara Desert, Büyük Sahra Çölü The Brazilian Jungle, Brezilya cangılı The Antarctic, AntarKtfKa Death Valley, Ölüm Vadssı California, Kaliforniya

 

FOR STUDY

 

PATTERNS OF NEGATIVE QUESTIONS

  1. Don’t you play tennis? No, I don’t; I play basket-ball. Doesn’t he go to school? No, he doesn’t; he works.

Don’t they go out on Sundays? No, they don’t; they stay at home.

  1. Aren’t you Helen? No, I’m not; I’m Mary.

Isn’t she Maureen? No, she’s not; she’s Susan.

Aren’t they ducks? No, they aren’t; they’re geese.

  1. Can’t you swim? No, I can’t; but I can ride a bicycle.

Can’t he come? No, he can’t; he’s too busy.

Can’t they write? No, they can’t; they haven’t been to school yet.

  1. Hasn’t he got a car? No, he hasn’t; but he’s got a boat. Haven’t you got a dog? No, I haven’t but I’ve got a cat. Haven’t they got any children? No, they haven’t; they’ve only got three cats.
  2. Mustn’t you study now? No, because I’ve already studied. Mustn’t she get up? Yes, I think she must; it’s already 8 o’clock. Mustn’t they stop the noise? They certainly must; we can’t sleep.

TIME

—      What’s the time?

—      By my watch it’s ten past six, but I don’t know if that’s the right time.

—      By the clock of the Houses of Parliament it’s twenty past six; perhaps your time is the wrong time. Your watch is slow. It’s ten minutes slow.

—      Yes, but perhaps it’s the right time; the clock of the Houses of Parliament is probably fast. Haven’t you got the time?

—      No, I haven’t. My watch is out of order.

 

THE VERBS TEACH, SHOW, GIVE, ASK, LEND, AND TELL

  1. Miss Staley has taught the students the simple present tense.

She has taught the simple present tense to the students.

  1. Paddy has shown us a picture of an Irish Town.

Paddy has shown a picture of an Irish Town to us.

  1. Mr. Heath gave Michael some money this morning.

Mr. Heath gave some money to Michael this morning.

  1. Miss Staley asked me a question about the Sahara Desert.

Miss Staley asked a question about the Sahara Desert. (We don’t say “to me”)

  1. Kathy has lent Paddy her history book.

Kathy has lent her history book to Paddy.

  1. Grandmother told us a story about a good man.

Grandmother told a story to the children.

THE VERB TO HAVE (Customary meaning)

  1. What do you have for breakfast every morning?

We have tea, biscuits, butter and jam.

  1. When do you have your bath?

I always have my bath in the evening, but my sister has it in the morning.

  1. Did you have a walk in the afternoon?

No, I didn’t. I always have a walk in the morning.

  1. Have you had a nice time?

Yes, we’ve had a wonderful time.

  1. What are you doing in the bathroom?

I’m having a bath.

customary meaning, kullanageldigimiz anlam THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

  1. The rain has stopped; we can shut our umbrellas now.
  2. He has been to England, but he hasn’t been to France.
  3. He has had dinner and now he is smoking his pipe.
  4. John is not here because he has gone to the cinema.
  5. Mary has not come yet and it is late.
  6. He has already written 5 letters.
  7. He has not finished yet; he is still working.

8 How long has he studied9 He has studied for 3 hours.

 

9. How long has he been here? He has been here since 5 o’clock. 10 Georqe has not visited his grandmother since last Friday.

12. The doctor has just come; he is gouty iu .., – –

THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE

  1. He was not at home, when i visited h5^- last night.
  2. He could not sleep last night because he was ill.
  3. He had a fever yesterday but he is well today.
    1. We had lunch at 2 p.m today because we were busy.
    2. She came to school late; it was 8.10 a.m; she came 10 minutes late.
    3. They were in Ireland last summer.
    4. She did not greet me when she saw me yesterday evening.
    5. Last year he stayed in Italy for 3 months; he wasn’t in Turkey in January.
    6. He could not walk last month because he had a broken leg.

10. I saw George two days ago. I saw him at a cinema.

11. How long did he stay in Italy last summer? He stayed for 2 months.

12. Yesterday noon I heard that George is ill.

THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS WHO, WHOM, WHICH,THAT

  1. That’s the boy who broke the window yesterday morning.
  2. This is the girl who wants to see your brother.
    1. This is the box which contains the sweets that you want.
    2. The students who go to school late are very few.
    3. The girls who are in the garden are my friends.
      1. The benches which are high are for the tall boys and girls.
      2. That’s the doctor that saved my uncle’s life.
      3. Here’s the woman that wants to speak to you.
        1. The book that is on the desk is Kathy’s; the books that are on the table are Michael’s.

10. These are the men that clean the streets every morning.

11. The lady whom/that you saw lives next door to us.

  1. The man whom/that you showed me is Mr. Long-

13. The box which/that my father brought was a box of sweets.

14. The women whom/that my mother greeted are our friends.

 

 

  1. The men whom/that the police want are thieves.
  2. The windows which/that you are looking at are the windows of my classroom.

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN WHOSE

  1. The man whose shop is round the corner is my friend’s father.
    1. The girl whose coat is green is my sister.
    2. The house whose roof has no chimney is Paddy’s.                            *
      1. They are the Englishmen whose wives are Turks.
      2. These are the ladies whose children come and play with us.
        1. The elephants whose ears are big are African elephants.

THE REFLEXIVE AND EMPHASIZING PRONOUNS

  1. Be careful with that gun, or else you could hurt yourself.
  2. Cats wash themselves after they eat something.
  3. She cut herself with a piece of broken glass.
  4. We cleaned ourselves because we were full of dirt.
    1. Kathy herself made the cake.
    2. Don’t punish Kathy, mother. I myself did it.
    3. The two boys broke the window; they themselves did it.
      1. You yourself must make your bed; your mother can’t because she’s ill today.

COMPARISONS

  1. George is as tall as John. John is as tall as Henry. The three boys are the same height.
  2. Helen is not as fat as Mary. Mary is not as fat as Jane. Jane is the fattest of the three girls.
  3. The train to izmir is not as fast as the train to Paris. The train to Paris is faster.
  4. The trains in Japan are the fastest in the world.
  5. John’s raincoat is better than George’s. It is better because it

is an English raincoat

Fnglish raincoats are the best in the world.

  1. We never spend our summerhoitdays on The mountains; we go to the sea, which is more pleasant in summer.
  2. The Aegean side of Turkey is one of the most pleasant places in the world for a summer holiday.

 

the 1 Phi!

  1. Taksim Square is the most centra! place in Istanbul.

i i ly^rqÇ)t DSvi mîi. x. sn© got ’3 Suss^ oot s worc?p niarK she got 11. Paddy’s mark was 10; he got the worst mark of ail

  1. There is more rain in İstanbul than in Eskişehir. There is much more rain at Rize than in İstanbul. The rain that falls at Rize is the most in Turkey. There is less rain in Ankara than in Eskişehir. There is much less rain at Diyarbakır than in Ankara. The rain that falls at Diyarbakır is the least in Turkey.
  2. Mr. Harold Heath is younger than his brother Mr. John Heath; Mr. John Heath is his elder brother. Mr. David Heath is older than his brothers Harold and John. There are no other brothers. Mr. David Heath is Harold’s eldest brother.
  3. The lowest temperature last winter was 2 degrees centigrade. The highest temperature last summer was 41 degrees centigrade.

IDIOMS – VERBAL PHRASES

  1. Idioms with the meaning of time

the right time, doğru saat the wrong time, yanlış saat all the time, sürekli, zamanın tümü in time, vaktinde on time, tam zamanında to have a nice time, iyi vakit geçirmek my watch is slow, saatim geri kalıyor my watch is fast, saatim ileri gidiyor my watch is out of order, saatim bozuk by my watch, benim saatime göre, i            how long, ne kadar zaman, kaç saat

  1. Verbal phrases with the verb “to be”

to be afraid, korkmak to be ashamed, utanmak to be born, doğmak to be busy, meşgul olmak to be thirsty, susamak

84 Page eighty-four

to be hungry, acıkmak to be sorry, üzgün olmak, birşeye üzülmek

  1. Verbal phrases with other verbs

to catch a train, trene yetişmek to catch an aeroplane, uçağa yetişmek to catch a ship, vapura yetişmek to catch a bus, otobüse yetişmek to get dark, karanlık çökmek to run away, kaçmak, firar etmek to shake hands, el sıkışmak to go on holiday, tatile çıkmak to have fun, eğlenmek

  1. The word “last” last night, dün gece last Monday, geçen Pazartesi last Sunday, geçen Pazar last Friday, geçen Cuma last week, geçen hafta last month, geçen ay last year, geçen yıl last Christmas, geçen Noel
  2. Wishes ■ Exclamations (iyi dilek – hayret ifadeleri)

congratulations, kutlarım, tebrikler

what a pity, ne yazık!

how nice, ne güzel

how come? nasıl oldu da

manu Kannu returns, nice mutlu yıldönümlerine

make yourseiT ax siumc: ^                     3

help yOUrseİT, K0MUİ Scfvlölni ycipiVen

 

at least, en azından, hiç olmazsa ftvif ıh?1’«, orada

a ıvny »»-/i—————

to our heart’s content, doya doya what’s the matter? ne var, ne oluyor?

 

for instance, örneğin

even so, bunlara rağmen, öyle olsa da

* « HPflBO

 

become – became – become

begin – began – begun

bite – bii – bitten

break – broke – broken

bring – brought – brought

build – built – built

catch – caught – caught

come – came – come

cut – cut – cut

dig – dug – dug

do – did – done

drink – drank – drunk

eat – ate – eaten

feed – fed – fed

find – found – found

forget – forgot – forgotten

get – got – got

give – gave – given

go – went – gone

hang – hung – hung

hang – hanged – hanged

have – had – had

hear – heard – heard

hit – hit – hit

hurt – hurt – hurt

keep – kept – kept

know – knew – known

lend – lent – lent

let – let – let lose – lost – lost

make – made – made

mean – meant – meant

mow – mowed – mown

pay – paid – paid

put – put – put

read – read – read

rise – rose – risen

run – ran – run

see – saw – seen

sell – sold – sold

shake – shook – shaken

shoot – ihot – shot

show – showed – shown

sing – sang – sung

sink – sank – sunk

sit – sat – sat

speak – spoke – spoken

spend – spent – spent

steal – stole – stolen

swim – swam – swum

take – took – taken

teach – taught – taught

tell – told – told

think – thought – thought

understand – understood – understood

wake – woke – woken

wear – wore – worn

win – won – won

write – wrote – written

LESSON FIFTEEN


 

 

 

Prepositions (verbs with prepositions and particles)a

  1. To go to – in – out (of) – up (stairs) – down (stairs) – back – from – across – by – on

This train goes to istanbul in 7 hours.    ,

He stopped at a restaurant and went in because he was hungry.

The cat is not here; it went out; it’s out of the house.

We went up a high hill last Sunday.

We go upstairs when we want to sleep. Our bedrooms are upstairs.

We went down the beach because we wanted to swim. After we wash we go downstairs to have breakfast; the. dining-room is downstairs.

John went back home because he was ill; he did not stay with us all the time.

These small boats go from Sirkeci to Buyiikada.

We went across the street to see a shop-window.

I went to England by train, but my sister went by aeroplane.

You can oniy go to Burgazada by ship.

I went to the village by car, but my friend went on foot.

  1. To come to – in – out – back – up (stairs) – down (stairs) – across

–       from.

We walked for 2 hours and then wecame toasmall village. Shut the window; the rain is coming in.

The children came otft of school at 3 p.m.

Mr. Heath goes out to work at 8.10 a.m. and he comes back at 6 p.m.

Come up the ladder and give me the paint.

Tc!I \mwI.uu! w uu.nc uuwu ine iree; ne could hurt himself. Come downstairs! Breakfast is ready.

Come upstairs and go to bed; it’s late.

He came from I onrinn h\/ train- he_camA MfA««

 

 

Mr. Heath has taken Michael and Kathy to Heathrow Airport, which is one of the two main London airports. The children have never been to an airport before and they wanted to see the aeroplanes.

kathy: – What’s that plane just coming in? mr. heath: That’s a jumbo jet; it’s a long distance plane; it’s probably coming from the United States. michael: How long does it take to go across the ocean? mr. heath: Well, I think it flies across the ocean in about 4 hours.

■kathy: Look! It’s coming down now! It’s landing! michael: Have you travelled a long distance by plane,Daddy? mr. heath- Yes, I’ve flown to Australia. kathy: Did your plane stop on the way? mr heath: Yes, these long distance planes to Australia fly across the Mediterranean and they stop at Teheran; then they fly to Bangkok and after they go across the Indian Ocean to Melbourne and Sydney. michael: Do they come back the same way? mr. heath: Yes, they do.

kathy: How many planes go out and come in every day? mr heath. I don’t know exactly, but I can say more than two or three hundred.

michael: Look! There’s an aeroplane taking off ; it’s just going out.

mr heath: Yes, that’ a small plane; it’s probably flying to Dublin or Belfast.

MtCHAEL: Does it fly over the English Channel? mr. heath- Certainly not. The English Channel is south and Ireland is north-west; it goes north-west, then it goes across the Irish Sea.

 

Look! It’s going up very fast. Is it faster than a jumbo jet?

No, it’s slower than a jumbo jet but it goes up faster because it’s a lighter plane.

Does it come down fast?

Well, when it lands it isn’t as fast as a jumbo biit it lands in less time because it runs a shorter distance on the runway.

What are all those people who are coming in and going out those doors?

They are passengers, at least most of them are. Some are going out of London and some have just come in. The outgoing pasengers go up those escalators and the incoming passengers come down.

There’s another aeroplane; it’s flying over us. Where’s that going?

It’s flying south, or south-east; it’s probably going to fly across the English Channel to Paris or other cities in Europe.

 

 

 

 

WORDS – NAMES OF PLACES

village, köy

airport, havaalanı

plane, uçak

jumbo-jet, jumbo jet

distance, mesafe

probably, galiba, muhtemelen

îû land, inmek (uçak için)

lü İanç Üîî. T Î’ĞV’ÖÎCÎT ÎT’TCÎr» f                                                                                                                                         -Î1‘-/

a – agxa a srhâ-s               ÎJ’                                                         *

. ..                                                             1 1- –

escalators, yürüyen merdivenler

The English Channel, Manş Denizi

 

Prepositions – continued

  1. To call at – on – in – up – off

He called at my house yesterday afternoon but I wasn’t there. Call on me some day and we can have tea.

He called in on his way to work, we had coffee and he left. Paul didn’t call me up because he didn’t know my phone number.

1 vaiiw iviai y u^i l^ii i 171 u ic ncvvo.

The President called off the meeting because he was ill.

  1. To get on * up – in – out – away – to – off

If you get on my bicycle I can give you a ride.

She got off the bus at Piccadilly Circus.

This tree is too high; I can’t get up to its top.

There was a big crowd in front of the cinema but we finally got in.

We couldn’t get out because there was no door.

His mother locked the door and he couldn’t get away.

The other day a prisoner got away and the pol ice haven t f ou nd him yet.

It’s difficult to get to that village; there is no road.

  1. To run in – into – out – up – down – along – across – away

Some athletes are running in the stadium; I think they are sprinters.

When it began to rain the children ran into the school. When the bell rang the students ran out to play.

They are tired because they ran up the hill.

Don’t run down the hill; you could hurt yourselves.

He ran along the street to catch the bus at the bus-stop. Athletes run across countries to bring the Olympic light to the 1 Olympic Games.

When the thief saw the policeman he ran away.

 

  1. To turn on – off. To switch on – off – To put on – out

It’s dark; turn on the lights. I’ve switched them on.

After the sun goes down we put on the lights.

Turn off the lights, I want to sleep. I’ve switched them qff; good night.

Put out the lights; it isn’t dark now.

  1. To be sorry for – to. To show in – out. To look at • for – after – through – out

I am sorry to hear that your brother is ill.

He hasn’t passed his examination; I’rrt sorry for him.

When I rang the bell she opened the door and showed me in. After the visit the maid showed him out.

The children are looking at the aeroplanes.

He has lost his book; he’s looking for it everywhere.

Paul is ill with a bad cold; his mother is looking after him. Look through the window. Do you see anyone in?

Look out! A car is coming down the street.

 

How did he get on that wall?

He went up that ladder, that’s how.

How is he going to get down?

He’s going to get down by coming down that ladder.

But the ladder is on the ground. How can he come down the ladder now?

Because we are going to put it up!

What’s that crowd doing over there?

They are waiting for the lift.

Yes, but the lift isn’t coming.

Of course it’s not coming!

What’s the matter with it?

There’s nothing the matter with the lift.

It’s not coming because Paddy is inside.

And what’s he doing?

He’s going up and coming down all the time but he doesn’t come out. That’s why the people, who are waiting, can’t get in!

What’s he doing?

He’s looking for a penny.

How did he lose it?

He didn’t lose it; his English wife lost it a few days ago. Why is he lopking for it now?

He’s just come back home from a visit to Scotland.

Isn’t he English?

No, he’s a Scotsman.

—  Who is it Paddy?

—  It’s a gentleman; he wants to see you, daddy.

—  Show him in then.

—  Yes, now I remember! He’s the same gentleman I showed out the other day.

WORDS

phone, telefon president, başkan meeting, toplanti locked, kilitli to lock, kilitlemek prisoner, mahkûm athlete, sporcu, atlet stadium, stadyum sprinter, sürat koşucusu maid, ev işçisi (kadın) baby, bebek lift, asansör

penny, peni (100 peni = 1 Sterlin)

IDIOMS

come on, hadi

of course, elbette, tabi

to be ashamed, utanmak, yüzü kızarmak

VERBAL PHRASES

to call at, bir yeri ziyaret etmek to call on, bir kimseyi ziyaret etmek to call in, uğramak to call up, teiefon etmek to call oh, iptal etmek

to get on, binmek (taşıta)

to get up, tırmanmak, çıkmak (dağa)

to get in, içeri girmek,

to get out, çıkmak

to get away, kaçmak, firar etmek

to get off, inmek

 

to run in, bıryorde koşmak

HIM ipt/\ U-r\e^im\ş niırnoİ/

»V ■ MBI !■            l\vyui (4I\ ^Iİ İ İ ivl\

to run out, koşarak çıkmak

îo run up, koşarak yukarı doğru çıkmak

to run down, koşarak inmek

to rıjn aionn ivni’ı bO\/unca koşmak

— ……………………………….. \-J -—-/———————- /——— ^————– [1]——————– —t—-

to run across, biryeri koşarak enine geçmek to run away, kaçmak, koşarak uzaklaşmak to turn on, birşeyi düğmesini çevirerek çalıştırmak to switch on, birşeyi düğmesini çevirerek çalıştırmak to put on, çalıştırmak, ışığı açmak to turn off, düğmesini çevirerek durdurmak to switch off, düğmesini çevirip durdurmak to put off, ertelemek

to be sorry for, birşeyden dolayı üzgün olmak, to be sorry to, birşeyi yapmaktan dolayı üzgün olmak to show in, içeri buyur etmek, içeri almak to show out, evden çıkanı uğurlamak to look at, bakmak

to look for, birşeyi aramak, araştırmak to look after, birisine bakmak, bakımını üstlenmek to look through, birşeye doğru bakmak to look out, dikkat etmek

NOT

Herhangi bir durum ekiyle kullanıldığında to get fiili terime “bir zorluğun üstesinden gelmek” anlamı katar. Fiilin kullanıldığı yerlerde, herzaman bir engel ya da zorluk vardır. Girmek anlamında go ¡n deriz. Ama kapının önünde toplanmış bir kalabalık girmemizi zorlaştı- rıyorsa, ya da kapı önünde başka bir engel varsa, get in deriz. Emir kipi olarak kullanımda ise anlam daha bir sertleşir, get in! “çabuk içeri” demektir, get out ise “defol!” Bu kuralın t istisnaları da vardır. Arabaya binmek = get in, arabadan inmek = get out deriz. Uçak, otobüs ve tren içinse, get on ve get off kullanmz.

tim X


LESSON SIXTEEl


 

 

 

The simple future tense

Shall: 1st person – Will: 2nd and 3rd person.

 

I,   we shall play.

you, he, she, it, they will play.

2nd person 3rd person

 

 

 

SINGULAR

PLURAL

I shall come I We shall come

you will come you will come he, she, it will come they will come

 

 

 

 

AFFIRMATIVE INTERROGATIVE
1 shall come Shall 1 come?
You will come Will you come?
He will come Will he come?
She will come Will she come?
It will come Will it come?
We shall come Shall we come?
You will come Will you come?
They will come Will they come?
NEGATIVE

 

INTERROGATIVE – NEGATIVE

 

Shan’t I come? Won t you come? Won’t he come? Won’t she come? Won’t it come? Shan’t we come? Won’t you come?\ JL « _ ‘ 4                        . —_________ AWon t mtry uume <

 

shaii not = shan’t will not = won’t

 

N


Is George going to work now? Is it Sunday to-day?

Are the children studying now?

Is this train going

out of the station?

Are you coming to see us

IQ-Gay ; i

Are you going to England this month?

Is she going to Paris in winter?

Is Miss Staley teaching Geography?

What’s the date to-day?

What was the date yesterday? What will the date be tomorrow?

No, he’ll go to work at 2 p.m. No, it’ll be Sunday tomorrow. No, but they’ll study this afternoon.

No, it ll go out after an hour.

No, but we’!! come tomorrow

No, but 111 go next summer.

No, but she’ll go to Paris next spring.

No, she’ll teach Geography next week:

It’s 28th March 1975.

It was 27th March 1975.

It’ll be 29th March 1975.

 

 

 

 

Song

When I was just a little girl I asked my mother “What shall I be?”

“Shall I be happy? Shall I be rich?’’ Here’s what she said to me:

“Que sera, sera, whatever will be will be, the future’s not ours to see, what will be, will be.”

future, gelecek

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

and Kathy have a conversation

What will you do when you finish school? Have you thought of it?

No, I haven’t. It’s too early yet, but I shall certainly go to University. Do you remember when Miss Staley said I must go to University? She knows better, so I shall do as she says.

What will you study at University?

I don’t know yet. 1 haven’t decided. Perhaps I shall wait until Miss Staley says what will be best for me to study.

Your highest mark is in English. Won’t you study English Literature?

Yes, it is my highest mark, but shall I be happy? The only thing that I can do will be to teach. Shall I be a good teacher? You will be a good teacher one day, if you go to University. You see women are better teachers than men. No, I don’t want to be a teacher; it’s a woman’s job. After all I’ve got high marks in Physics, Biology and Maths, too. Couldn’t I study something else?

That’s right. Perhaps you will study Physics then.

I don’t know yet. Paul says that he will study to be a Veterinarian.

What’s a Veterinarian?

Oh, that’s an animal doctor. That’s the kind of job that will make me happy. It’s always nice to feel that you will help a poor dumb animal. Besides I shall

study with Paul and you know he is one of my good

* : =1

Yes, that s not a idea, yju naven mouyht z~. something else.

What’s that7

Fluffy and Tom will have a doctor and we shan’t pay for their medical treatment when they grow old. Poor old Fluffy, poor old Tom! I can’t think of the idea that they will grow old one day.

 

— Thank you, out i’m airaid \ shan’t.I )! go to the cmema with my parents 

 

— 
Yes, ne win come wilu u3 ar.c . u:::    — – . -—. but you’ll have your party without us.

—  I’m sorry too.

At least will you come to wish me happy birthday some other day?

—  Yes, we’H be happy to visit you the day after tomorrow. We shan’t go anywhere on Sunday.

—  What’s the weather forecast, Harold?

—¿It will be a sunny morning tomorrow;

but it will be cloudy at noon.

—  Will it rain in the afternoon?

—  No, it won’t rain

but the temperature will go down.

—  Shall we go out in the country then?

—  I don’t know; if it isn’t too cold we shall go.

—  Do you think the Wolves will win?

—  Well, they were a very good team last year and they always beat Leeds,

but I don’t believe they will beat Leeds to-day.

—  Yes but nobody has scored yet

and the Wolves have a very good goal-keeper. 1 don’t think Leeds will score any goals.

—  Do you believe that

only a good goal-keeper will stop Leeds?

This year they are a very good team.

Don’t forget that they beat Chelsea five to nothing last Saturday.

—  Well the Wolves aren’t Chelsea.

You just wait and you’ll see.

—  Well I shan’t wait long.

There they go! Goal! Leeds scored! Hoorah*

 

100 Page one hundred

The coloured future – Gelecek zamanın talep (istem) ifadelerinde kullanımı

İngilizce’de gelecek zamanla, istek, dilek, söz verme, kararlılık hatta emir cümleleri yapabiliriz. Cümlemiz aynı zamanda da# gelecek zaman anlamı taşır. Bu tür cümlelerde shall ve will yardımcı fiilleri cümleye göre anlam kazanırlar.

Aşağıdaki cümlelerde, basit örneklerle bu durumları görüyorsunuz.

  1. Will you open the window please?

Will = ikinci tekil şahsa yapılan bir ricayı gösteriyor. (Pencereyi ağarmışın lütfen?) Türkçe’de bu anlamı geniş zaman kullanarak veriyoruz.

Bir tercih göstermek anlamında da shall yerine will kullandık. Yes, I will. (Elbette, açayım)

  1. You shall have a chocolate if you are a good boy.

(İyi çocuk olursan bir çikolatayı hakedersin.)

shall terimini will yerine, söz verme anlamında kullandık bu kez.

  1. I want to go to Paris and I will go (Paris’e gitmek istiyorum ve de gideceğim.)

will, shall yerine. Cümle kesin bir kararı ifade ediyor.

  1. They shall never come to my house again!

(Bir daha evime gelmeyecekler!

shall bu kez will yerine. Cümle, kararlılık belirtiyor.

  1. He will not come because he doesn’t want to see George. (Gelmeyecek, çünkü George’u görmek istemiyor.)

will istek belirtme anlamında kullanılıyorsa, cümleyi:

“Gelmek istemiyor, çünkü George’u görmek istemiyor” anlamın­da Türkçeleştirebiliriz.

  1. My pen won’t work cümlesinde, gelecek anlamı yoktur, kalemim çalamıyor vazmav! reddediyor de^eöe aeür

He shall not come because I don’t want to see him. dediğimizde ise, “gelmesin, -çünkü üfurgörmek istemiyorum15‘demiş

 

1.You shall study now; you have played long enough. If you order me, ! will not study.

Study and you shall have some cake.

Z IT you QO wen = n inti tiAcii i iinaiiOri ivi T. ¡_OrTg^Scrra you shall go on an excursion tomorrow.

Then we will do our best, o Dpijjj +/-\ ^/jorr*\o~ ‘ Will you marrv mp Marcia?

Marcia to Paul:“Yes Paul, I will.”

Other ways to use some parts of our body

paddy:                         Do you know something?

KATHY:                        No, What?

paddy:                         I’ve seen a big tomato-tree.

kathy:                  Come on! you’re pulling my leg.

mrs. pokey: What did your husband give you for your birthday? mrs. bicker: Nothing; we quarrelled on the day before. mrs. pokey: Good heavens! I’ve put my foot in it.

susan:                         Aren’t you coming for a walk?

kathy                          No, thank you; I’m up to my eyes in work.

grandmother Now I’m going to tell you the story about Sindbad the sailor.

children How nice! Please tell us! we’re all ears.

phil                             What happened when you saw the snake in your

room?

ted                              Well, the first thing was that my hair stood on

end and the next thing was that I jumped out of ‘   the window.

mrs heath What’s that? Have you broken another glass9 kathy             I’m sorry; I’m always breaking things’

my fingers are all thumbs.

102 Page one hundred and two

WORDS

to decide, kararlaştırmak, karar vermek until (till), -e kadar literature, edebiyat

Physics, fizik                                                                                    ‘

Maths, Mathematics, matematik

Biology, biyoloji

veterinarian, veteriner

dumb, sağır

medical, tip

treatment, tedavi, sağaltım

party, parti, eğlence

forecast, tahmin etme , tasarlama

team, takım

to score, gol atmak

goal keeper, kaleci

goal, gol

excursion, yolculuk

to order, emretmek, ısmarlamak

PRINCIPAL PARTS – IRREGULAR VERBS

feel – felt – felt, hissetmek

beat – beat – beaten, kazanmak (maçı), dövmek

(ilk iki durumun telaffuzu aynıdır: bi:t)

NAMES

The Wolves, Wolverhampton kenti futbol takımınmın lakabı, “kur­tlar” demektir.

Leeds. Kuzey İngiltere’de bir sanayi kenti. Yorkshire’a bağlıdır. Aynı adlı futbol takımı ünlüdür.

Chelsea, Londra’nın bir semti. Aynı adlı bir futbol takımı vardır.

IDIOMS

after all, sonuç olarak

a bad idea, kötü bir fikir, (tersi a good idea)

f!w> _ : I it-                        n. \ i——————- i

live Ml>, ” \j) UcJŞ Ol 111

WVI U{ W W D Uj ■ ^ıpui I y VIVU, wiwvwn WIHI I \SIWI VJVI I IVIMM ■ II )^III(.V(V uv

wnai niii Dc will pa asye soyıerür. to do well, ivi aidivor to do badly, kötü gidiyor

to do my best, elimden gelenin en iyisini yapmak you’re pulling my leg, benimle dalga geçiyorsun I’ve put my foot in it, mendepsiye basmak, gaf yapmak I’m up to my eyes in work, başımı kaşıyacak vaktim yok we’re all ears, kulak kesilmek, dikkat kesilmek my hair stood on end, saçlarım diken diken oldu I’m all fingers and thumbs, elim ayağıma dolaştı



[1] shall – I’ll                      he will = he’ll                     we shall = we’ll

you will = you’ll she will = she’ll they will = they’ll

 

 

 

 

Bir yorum

  1. morteza khoshbin

    merheba teshekkur ederim yazdiklariniz ichin lutfen bu iki cmlenin ingilizcesine bana anlatin yarali oglan va yaralanmish oglan

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